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Karol L. Kumpfer
Department of Heath Education
College of Health
University of Utah
Email: karol.kumpfer@health.utah.edu

Purpose

The purpose of this class is to provide professional skills that will help students to select, implement, and evaluate the effectiveness of evidence-based family strengthening interventions. Students will increase their knowledge, skills, and expertise in the most up-to-date information on effective family strengthening interventions in their area of primary interest.

Objectives

The objectives of the course are to

  • Increase students' knowledge of the wide array of evidence-based family interventions that can be used to prevent or treat problems in youth by improving parenting and family relationships.
  • Increase students' knowledge of the principles and core elements of effective family practices.
  • Increase students' professional skills in conducting needs assessments and evaluations of evidence-based family strengthening programs.
  • Increase students' writing skills and critical appraisal skills in reviewing research articles on family-based research.

Mentors

For help with their final papers or grants, each student enrolled in this class will have the opportunity to select a mentor or mentors from the leading family-focused prevention scientists in the country. Students should let the instructor know what area they are interested in studying in more depth for their final paper by Week 4 and the mentors will be recommended based on this interest area. Once a first contact is made by the instructor, it is the student's responsibility to follow up with contact calls or emails. The mentors will be provided through the Society for Prevention Research, the professional organization of prevention researchers from many different universities and disciplines, nationally and internationally. Mentors could also provide online support to the students in answering debate questions and completion of the course assignments.

Instructions for Going to Class

The first few times it may seem daunting to even get to the class website, but it is much easier later with practice. Here are the steps to get to the class homepage.

  1. Go to website www.uonline.utah.edu.
  2. Enter your UNID and password to log in.
  3. A box will appear that allows you to select a semester. Be sure you are on spring semester, then click on My Classes.
  4. Under Spring 2005 click on Course to View, move your cursor over and click where it says HEDU 7070-090.
  5. WebCT should automatically open. Enter your UNID and password.
  6. Click on HEDU 7070-090.
  7. Congratulations! You are now on the HEDU 7070 homepage with icons for the different parts of the class, including Syllabus, Course Content (where you will find each week's questions and readings), Debate Chats (where you will meet each week for an online discussion with the instructor and other class members), Discussions (board for posting notices and comments to all class members), Mail (for sending assignments and contacting others confidentially), etc.

The University of Utah seeks to provide equal access to its programs, services, and activities for people with disabilities. If you will need accommodations in the class, reasonable prior notice needs to be given to the Center for Disability Services, 162 Olpin Union Building, 581-5020 (V/TDD). CDS will work with you and the instructor to make arrangements for accommodations.

All written information in this course can be made available in alternative format with prior notification to the Center for Disability Services.

Course Requirements

Starting Your Course Work

Students are expected to click on the Course Content section of the homepage. They will then see a list of all the 15 weekly topics, but not the readings or other debate questions. The students must click on the weekly topic to see a larger display of the weekly requirement spread out under each weekly topic. Under each weekly topic you will see the Instructor's Lecture, the Required Readings (online), the Optional Readings, and the Web Debate Questions. Some of the weekly materials include graphics in the instructor's lecture, a PowerPoint slide show, or a video of the instructor delivering the lecture. This information will provide students all information they need each week including the Web Debate Questions to focus the readings and class web discussions. They should then:

  • Check the Discussion Bulletin Board Each Week for Instructor's Comments on the Weekly Readings and the Debate Questions (30 points). Respond to the Instructor's Discussions at least twice and add your own class content on the weekly topics by posting your own comments at least twice on the Discussion Board. In the first week, post a half page Biographical Narrative on your current student status and/or job position and prior experience with family-based interventions, your reason for interest in this class, and something personal about what you like to do for fun. If possible, a scanned picture would be great to help others in the class have a face to put with the name in the weekly chats.

  • Read the Weekly Instructor's Lecture and Required Readings which are available online. Some of the readings can be read online only by downloading Acrobat Reader. Some students have had to access the online readings provided by the Marriott Library from their offices at the university. The optional readings are listed only to provide students additional reference sources if they choose to do a paper in this area or do extra readings on a topic of interest to them. Be sure to read the Weekly Web Debate Questions to focus your readings and prepare for the online weekly web debate.

  • Participate in a Weekly Web Debate Chat (Thursday 8:30pm to 9:30pm; 50 points). Students can access class debates by clicking on the homepage icon for Debate Chat and then again on the Room for Debates icon. You should then see your name in a list on the right side of the screen and all the other students who have logged on to the debate chat. The class chat will begin promptly at 8:30pm and end at 9:30pm. Some students can stay on for a few minutes more to ask the instructor questions about the class. The debates are rather fast and you may find it difficult to keep up with the comments. Please try to stick to the debate topic and to bring in your own thoughts on the readings and personal experiences to enrich the discussion. Another tip is to start to get online about 20 minutes beforehand to be sure you have no problems being in the Room for Debates by 8:30pm, particularly the first few times when you are learning how to get on. You can spend the extra time rereading the Instructor's Notes to answer the web debate question while you wait to get on the chat.

  • By the following Monday evening complete a half page response to the Weekly Web Debate Questions (10 points each or 120 points). Answer the weekly questions based on the required readings, instructor's lecture material, and any comments the instructor posted on the Discussion Board under that week's topic concerning her thoughts on the readings and topic. You should include citations to the readings in answering your questions to demonstrate you have done the readings and thought about the issues. Write your response in Word or Word Perfect, label all assignments by your first name and number of assignment (Karol #4, Jim #12, etc.), save on your computer hard drive and a class disk, and attach and send through the WebCT Mail. Note: WebCT attachments operate differently than in Word or Word Perfect.

To send WebCT Mail message:

  • From homepage, click Mail.
  • Click Compose Message.
  • Next to the Send To: line, click Browse.
  • Highlight Karol's name and click Select.
  • Type in a subject and message.
  • Underneath the message, click Browse and find the file you want to attach.
  • Click Attach File.
  • You should now see your file listed (with the option to remove).
  • Click Send.

As a backup print out and fax it to my office at 801-581-5872. The message will also appear in my Group Wise email and I will try to respond to you directly from my University office email within a week. I will grade the papers (10 points out of 10 points), make comments on your papers and post the grades in the My Grades section. If you don't get the papers back within a week or see the posting of the grades, email me directly (my University account) with your attachment and not through WebCT. This is the reason for you to keep a back-up copy. Sometimes these are not really attached in WebCT and they are lost. Late debate assignments will be scored lower by 2 points per week they are late. Students who are up-to-date with these response assignments by Week 12 will be excused from doing the last three in order to focus on completing their final papers or grants.

Draft of Final Publishable Paper on an Area of Family Interventions by the Last Week of Class (Week 15; 250 points)

The paper should be at least 20 pages single spaced of narrative with additional pages of references in APA style. The instructor can help students with topics and help them to find co-authors or mentors to help them with the papers if the students discuss their ideas for a paper within the first month of the class. The students should notify the instructor by the end of Week 4 on their paper topic and any co-authors. Late papers will be accepted, but grades will be reduced by 10 points for each week they are late. Email as attachment labeled with your name and final paper (Kim final paper, Jim final paper, etc.) Be sure to backup in several places and print out a copy for yourself. If any problem getting through WebCT mail, also send directly to my University email address above.

Optional Family Intervention Grant (250 points)

Students also have the option of completing an actual grant to a state or national funding source to get funding to implement and evaluate the effectiveness of a family-based intervention or training and advocacy systems for family-based approaches. The narrative of the grant should be at least 20 pages single spaced, plus the references. Co-registering with the instructor's grant writing class will facilitate this activity. The instructor can help students with possible funding sources for family interventions that will meet the needs of their clients or agency. Many federal grants are due in late spring, so there should be some opportunities here for funding. Check websites for SAMHDA/CSAP/CSAP/CMHS, NIDA, NIMH, NIAAA, OJJDP, DoED, HERSA, etc.

Evaluation

Students are evaluated on the basis of their participation in the weekly web debates, postings on the discussion boards, quality of their finished weekly assignments, and final publishable 20-page single-spaced paper (or equivalent family intervention grant proposal narrative (at least 20 pages also).

Grading

All scores will be totaled from all sources and the final grades will be assigned on the basis of graduate students standards. Most grades will be A's or B's with C's or D's reserved for poor or failing performance. Students can audit, but are expected to participate in the weekly debates, which is equivalent to coming to class.

Weekly Debate Room Chat Participation – 60
Participation in Discussion Board Postings – 30
Weekly Debate Assignments (10 points x 16) – 160
Final Publishable Paper (20 single pages + refs) or Family Intervention Grant Proposal – 250
Total Points: 500

Required Textbooks

No purchase of any textbook is required for this course. The major textbook is just the online Instructor's Readings which are being organized for a book. Other readings available are:

Kaftarian, S. J., & Kumpfer, K. L. (Eds.). (2000). Family-focused research and primary prevention practice [Special issue]. Journal of Primary Prevention, 21(2). (Articles scanned and online for class sessions.)

Kumpfer, K. L., & Alvarado, R. (1998). Effective family strengthening interventions (Juvenile Justice Bulletin, Family Strengthening Series). Rockville, MD: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.

Kumpfer, K., Alvarado, R., Kendall, K., Beesley, S., & Cavanass-Lee, C. (2002). Strengthening America's families (CSAP/OJJDP monograph). Salt Lake City: Department of Health Promotion and Education, College of Health, University of Utah. (Also available on www.strengtheningfamilies.org.)

Additional Suggested Textbooks

Ashery, R. S., Robertson, E., & Kumpfer, K. L. (Eds.). (1998). Drug abuse prevention through family interventions (NIDA Research Monograph #177, NIH Publication No. 97-4135). Rockville, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse. (Order from National Clearinghouse for Alcohol and Drug Information at ncadi.samhsa.gov. To view online, go directly to www.drugabuse.gov/pdf/monographs/Monograph177/Monograph177.pdf and you can click on different chapters within the monograph).

Center for Substance Abuse Prevention. (1998). Preventing substance abuse among children and adolescents: Family-centered approaches. Prevention Enhancement Protocols System (PEPS) (DHHS Publication No. (SMA) 3223-FY '98). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. (Order free from National Clearinghouse for Alcohol and Drug Information (NCADI) at ncadi.samhsa.gov.)

Kaftarian, S. J. (2000). Family interventions [Special issue]. Journal of Primary Prevention, 21(2), 169–183.

Helpful Websites

CSAP's National Clearinghouse for Alcohol and Drug Abuse Information (NCADI): ncadi.samhsa.gov
Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP): prevention.samhsa.gov
Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (CSAT): csat.samhsa.gov
Center for Mental Health Services (CMHS): www.mentalhealth.samhsa.gov/cmhs
CSAP's Prevention Decision Support System (an expert system)
OJJDP and the University of Utah's Family Strengthening Programs: www.strengtheningfamilies.org
Department of Education: www.ed.gov/offices/OESE/SDFS
National Institute on Drug Abuse: www.nida.nih.gov
National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcohol: www.niaaa.nih.gov
OJJDP's National School Safety Center: www.nssc1.org
Drug Strategies: www.drugstrategies.org
Strengthening Families Program: www.strengtheningfamiliesprogram.org
CDC Surgeon General's Office: www.surgeongeneral.com

Course Contents

Session #1: What is Prevention? Definitions and Terminology, Universal, Selective, and Indicated Prevention. Prevention Is Treatment of Indicated Populations

Web Debate Questions: What are the distinguishing features of the three levels of primary prevention? What are some populations that can be considered high-risk groups to be used in selective prevention? How can mental health treatment for adolescents be considered an indicated primary prevention approach?

Instructor's Readings:

  1. Overview of Family Strengthening Intervention Approaches
  2. Family Strengthening: What Works by Levels of Prevention
  3. Bridge Between Research to Practice
  4. What Works in Prevention

Required Readings:

Levine, M. (2000). Prevention and progress: A brief history of prevention. Journal of Primary Prevention, 21(2), 159–169.

Offord, D. R. (2000). Selection of levels of prevention. Addictive Behaviors, 25(6), 833–842.

Weissberg R., Kumpfer, K. L., & Seligman, M. (2003). Prevention that works for children and youth: An introduction. American Psychologist, 58(6/7), 425–432.

Optional Readings:

Mrazek, P. J., & Haggerty, R. J. (1994). Reducing risks for mental disorders: Frontiers for preventive intervention research. Washington, DC: National Academy Press for the Institute of Medicine, Committee on Prevention of Mental Disorders.

Session #2: Status of Families Today and Importance of Fathers: Changing Demographics, Problems of Poverty, and Lack of Parenting Support

Web Debate Questions: What are the major characteristics of at-risk children? Is the strength of American families improving or decreasing? Why? Do you think that the decreasing involvement of fathers in supporting and raising their children has impacted this health status? Why or why not?

Instructor's Readings:

  1. Identifying Children at Risk
  2. Status of Adolescent Youth: Substance Abuse
  3. Strengthening the Role of Fathers in Families: Kumpfer, K. L. (1999). The impact of the parenting of fathers on children. Prepared for Vice President Al Gore and Secretary Shalala.

Required Readings:

Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group. (2000). Merging universal and indicated prevention programs: The Fast Track model. Addictive Behaviors, 25(6), 913–927.

Silverstein, L. B., & Auerbach, C. F. (1999). Deconstructing the essential father. American Psychologist, 54(6), 397–407.

Optional Readings:

Blankenhorn, D. (1995). Fatherless America: Confronting our most urgent social problem. New York: Basic Books.

Booth, A., & Crouter, A. C. (1998). Men in families: When so they get involved? What difference does it make? Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Griswold, R. L. (1993). Fatherhood in America. New York: Basic Books.

Jencks, C., & Mayer, S. E. (1990). The social consequences of growing up in a poor neighborhood. In L. E. Lynn, & M. G. H. McGeary (Eds.), Inner-city poverty in the United States. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Jessor, R. (1993). Successful adolescent development among youth in high-risk settings. American Psychology, 48(2),117–126.

Hetherington, E. M., Bridges, M., & Insabella, G. M. (1998). What matters? What does not? Five perspectives on the association between marital transitions and children's adjustment. American Psychologist, 53, 167–184.

Lamb, M. E. (1987). The emergent American father. In M. Lamb (Ed.), The father's role: Cross-cultural perspectives (pp. 3–25). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Lamb, M. E. (1997). Fathers and child development: An introductory overview and guide. In M. E. Lamb (Ed.), The Role of the father in child development (3rd ed., pp. 1–18). New York: Wiley.

McLoyd, V. C. (1998). Socioeconomic disadvantage and child development. American Psychologist, 53, 185–204.

Popenoe, D. (1996). Life without father. New York: Pressler Press.

Web Sites for Optional Readings:

Monitoring the Future Survey. www.monitoringthefuture.org
Healthy People 2010. Surgeon General's Office. www.surgeongeneral.com

Session #3: Needs of Children and Youth Today: Basic and Resilience Needs

Web Debate Questions: How important is genetics or biology compared to family environment in predicting youth outcomes? What are the characteristics of resilient children? What can family strengthening programs do to improve resilience in families and youth?

Instructor's Readings:

  1. Identifying Groups at Risk
  2. Fostering Resilience in Children of Alcoholic Parents

Required Readings:

Chapter 2: Benard, B. (2000). From risk to resiliency: What schools can do. In W. B. Hansen, S. M. Giles, & M. D. Fearnow-Kenney (Eds.), Improving prevention effectiveness (pp. 23–36). Greensboro, NC: Tanglewood Research.

Kumpfer, K. L. (1999). Factors and processes contributing to resilience: The resilience framework. In M. D. Glantz, & J. L. Johnson (Eds.), Resilience and development: Positive life adaptions (pp. 179–224). New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.

Optional Readings:

Richardson, G. E., Neiger, B. L., Jensen S., & Kumpfer, K. L. (1990). The Resiliency Model. Journal of Health Education, 21(6), 33–39.

Glantz, M. D., & Johnson, J. L. (1999). Resilience and development: Positive life adaptations. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Press.

Session #4: The Impact of Family Systems on Children: Family Risk and Protective Factors

Web Debate Questions: Why are needs assessments important before designing or selecting family prevention interventions? What are several types of needs assessments that can be done? According to the CSAP Pathways model (SEM), which three family risk and protective factors most impact later negative or positive outcomes in children?

Instructor's Readings:

  1. Family Protective and Resilience Factors
  2. Needs Assessment

Required Readings:

Ary, D. V., Duncan, T. E., Biglan, A., Metzler, C. W., Noell, J. W., & Smolkowski, K. (1999). Development of adolescent problem behavior. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 27(2), 141–150.

Kumpfer, K. L., Olds, D., Alexander, J., Zucker, R., & Gary, L (1999). Family etiology of youth problems. In R. Ashery, E. Robertson, & K. Kumpfer (Eds.), Drug abuse prevention through family interventions (NIDA, NIH Pub. No. 99-4135. pp. 42–77).

Kumpfer, K. L., & Turner, C. W. (1990–1991). The social ecology model of adolescent substance abuse: Implications for prevention. The International Journal of the Addictions, 25(4A), 435–463.

Optional Readings:

Kandel, D., Simcha Fagan, O., & Davies, M. (1986). Risk factors for delinquency and illicit drug use from adolescence to young adulthood. Journal of Drug Issues, 60, 67–90.

Kellam, S. G., Simon, M. B., & Ensminger, M. E. (1983). Antecedents of teenage drug use and psychological well being: A ten-year community wide prospective study. In D. Ricks, & B. S. Dohrenwend (Eds.), Origins of psychopathology: Research and public policy (pp. 17–42). Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.

Resnick, M., Bearman, P. S., Blum, R. W., Bauman, K. E., Harris, K. M., Jones, J., et al. (1997). Protecting adolescents from harm. Journal of the American Medical Association, 278(10), 823–832.

Springer, J. F., Sambrano, S., Sale, E., Nistler, M., Kisim, R., & Hermann, J. (2000). The national cross-site ealuation of high-risk youth programs: Final report. Rockville, MD: EMT Associates and ORC Macro.

Turner, C., Sales, L., & Springer, F. (1998, July). Analysis of the high risk youth grantee program: Pathways to substance use. Paper presented at the third annual CSAP High Risk Youth Conference, Cincinnati, OH.

Session #5: How Do We Know What Works in Family Strengthening Interventions: Evaluation Research Methodology

Web Debate Questions: Why are so few family interventions well evaluated? Why is it harder to implement randomized control trials with families in crisis that need in-home family support or family therapy? What would be an ideal design for controlling internal and external threats to validity of the outcome results for clinic-based, family therapy program and why? What are the major criteria discussed by Chambless and Hollon (1998) for judging the scientific merit and determining effectiveness?

Instructor's Readings:

Kumpfer, K. L. (1999). Outcome measures of interventions in the study of children of substance abusing parents. Journal of the American Academy of Pediatrics, 103, 1128–1144.

Kumpfer, K. L. (2000). Family strengthening initiative measurement instruments: Adult measures and youth measures. Rockville, MD: CSAP/McFarland.

Kumpfer, K. L., Whiteside, H., & Wandersman, A. (1997). Community readiness for prevention.

Required Readings:

Brown, C. H., Berndt, D., Brinales, J. M., Zong, X., & Bhagust, D. (2000). Evaluating the evidence of effectiveness for preventive intervention, using a registry system to improve policy through science. Addictive Behaviors, 25(6), 955–964.

Chambless, D. L., & Hollon, S. D. (1998). Defining empirically supported therapies. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66(1), 7–18.

Campbell, D. T., & Stanley, J. C. (1963). Experimental and quasi-experimental designs for research. Chicago: Rand-McNally. (Tables 1, 2, & 3)

Optional Readings:

Cronbach, L. J. (1951). Coefficient alpha and internal structure of tests. Psychometrika, 16, 297–334.

Dunst, C. J., & Trivette, C. M. (1994). Methodological considerations and strategies for studying the long-term follow-up of early intervention. In S. L. Friedman, & H. C. Haywood (Eds.), Developmental follow-up: Concepts, domains and methods (pp. 277–313). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Gresham, F. M., & Elliott, S. N. (1990). Social skills rating system manual. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.

Tobler, N. S., & Kumpfer, K. L. (2001). Meta-analyses of family approaches to substance abuse prevention.

Tobler, N. S., & Stratton, H. H. (1997). Effectiveness of school-based prevention programs: A meta-analysis of the research. Journal of Primary Prevention 18(1), 71–128.

Session #6: Intervention Principles and Theories: What Makes Family Programs Work?

Web Debate Questions: What are the principles and most critical processes in effective family interventions that you believe contribute to positive changes in the parents and children and family as a system? If a particular family prevention program includes all these principles, is it necessarily effective? What is missing from this list of principles of family-focused prevention? What are some of the other principles of prevention science?

Instructor's Readings:

  1. Principles of Family-Focused Prevention (also on NIDA website: www.nida.nih.gov)
  2. PowerPoint on Principles of Family-Focused Prevention
  3. What Works in Prevention: Principles of Effective Prevention Programs

Websites:

ONDCP Principles of Prevention: www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov/prevent/practice.html
NIDA Prevention Research: www.nida.nih.gov/DrugPages/Prevention.html
NIDA Principles of HIV Prevention in Drug-Using Populations: www.nida.nih.gov/POHP/principles.html
CSAP Prevention Pathways: preventionpathways.samhsa.gov
NIDA Lessons from Prevention Research: www.nida.nih.gov/Infofax/lessons.html

Required Readings:

Bry, B. H., Catalano, R. F., Kumpfer, K. L., Lochman, J. E., & Szapocznik, J. (1998). Scientific findings from family prevention intervention research. In Ashery, Robertson, & Kumpfer (Eds.), Family focused prevention of drug abuse: Research and interventions (NIDA Research Monograph, pp. 103–129). Washington, DC: Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office.

Dishion, T. J., & Andrews, D. W. (1995). Preventing escalation in problem behaviors with high-risk young adolescents: Immediate and 1-year outcomes. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 63(4), 538–548.

National Institute on Drug Abuse. (1997). Preventing drug use among children and adolescents (NIH Publication No. 97-4212). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Available online: www.nida.nih.gov/Prevention/Prevopen.html.

Tobler, N. S. (1986). Meta-analysis of 143 adolescent drug prevention programs: Quantitative outcome results of program participants compared to a control or comparison group. The Journal of Drug Issues, 16, 537–567.

Tobler, N. S., & Stratton, H. H. (1997). Effectiveness of school-based prevention programs: A meta-analysis of the research. Journal of Primary Prevention, 18(1), 71–128.

Session #7: Overview of Evidence-Based Family Strengthening Interventions: What Works

Web Debate Questions: Why are family strengthening approaches preferable to child only approaches? What characteristics discriminate child-only approaches from family-based interventions? What are general effect sizes found for family-based approaches compared to child-only approaches? What is the evidence of effectiveness?

Instructor's Readings (see www.strengtheningfamilies.org):

  1. Family-Focused Prevention
  2. Family-Focused Prevention Slide Show

Required Readings:

Alvarado, R., & Kumpfer, K. L. (2000). Strengthening America's families. Juvenile Justice, 7(2), 8–18.

Kumpfer, K. L, & Alvarado, R. (2003). Family strengthening approaches for the prevention of youth problem behaviors. In R. Weissberg, & K. L. Kumpfer (Eds.), American Psychologist, 58(6/7), 457–465.

Kumpfer, K. L., & Alvarado, R. (1998). Effective family strengthening interventions (Juvenile Justice Bulletin, Family Strengthening Series). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.

Taylor, T. K., & Biglan, A. (1998). Behavioral family interventions for improving child-rearing: A review for clinicians and policy makers. Clinical Child and Family Psychological Review, 1(1), 41–60.

Optional Readings:

Kazdin, A. E. (1993). Adolescent mental health: Prevention and treatment programs. American Psychologist, 48(2), 127–140.

Kazdin, A. E. (1995). Conduct disorders in childhood and adolescence (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Lutzker, J. R. (1998). Handbook of child abuse research and treatment. New York: Plenum Press.

Session #8: Gender Issues in Family Interventions and Adaptations to Increase Effectiveness for Girls

Web Debate Questions: Why are prevention programs not working for girls? How well are family-focused prevention programs working for girls compared to other prevention approaches? What do you think needs to be done to make family prevention programs work better for girls? How much have prevention programs been modified to be gender-specific for girls or women and what are the typical types of modifications made to the program curriculums?

Instructor's Readings:

  1. Gender Specific TED
  2. Gender Issues in Prevention – PowerPoint Presentation at APA

Required Readings:

Kumpfer, K. L., & Bays, J. (1995). Child abuse and alcohol and other drug abuse. In J. H. Jaffe (Ed.), The encyclopedia of drugs and alcohol. New York: MacMillian Publishing.

Amaro, H., Blake, S. M., Schwartz, P. M., & Flinchbaugh, L. J. (2001). Developing theory-based substance abuse prevention programs for young adolescent girls. Journal of Early Adolescence, 21(3), 256–293.

Blake, S. M., Amaro, H., Schwartz, P. M., & Flinchbaugh, L. J. (2001). A review of substance abuse prevention interventions for youth adolescent girls. Journal of Early Adolescence, 21(3), 294–324.

Optional Readings:

Chesney-Lind, M. (2000).

Kumpfer, K. L. (1991). Treatment programs for drug-abusing women. The Future of Children, 1(1), 50–60.

Kumpfer, K. L. (1993, February). Substance abuse and child maltreatment. Violence Update, 1–10.

Session #9: Behavioral Parent Training Approaches: Theory, Core Elements, Outcome Effectiveness, and Evidence-Based Programs

Web Debate Questions: What characteristics discriminate parent training approaches from other family-based interventions? What levels of prevention can this approach be used with? What are general effect sizes found and what is the evidence of effectiveness? Which model programs have been found that have research evidence of effectiveness?

Instructor's Readings:

  1. Strengthening America's Families – see www.strengtheningfamilies.org
  2. Behavioral Parent Training

Required Readings:

Sanders, M. R. (2000). Community-based parent and family support interventions and prevention of drug abuse. Addictive Behaviors, 25(6), 929–942.

Webster-Stratton, C., & Taylor, T. (2001). Nipping early risk factors in the bud: Preventing substance abuse, delinquency, and violence in adolescence through interventions targeted at young children (0–8 years). Prevention Science, 2(3), 165–192. (Focus primarily on the overview of parent training approaches on pp. 170–172).

Dishion, T. J., & Kavanagh, K. (2000). A multilevel approach to family-centered prevention in schools: Process and outcome. Addictive Behaviors, 25(6), 899–911.

Optional Readings:

Brestan, E. V., & Eyberg, S. M. (1998). Effective psychosocial treatments of conduct-disordered children and adolescents: 29 years, 82 studies, and 5,272 kids. Journal of Clinical and Child Psychology, 27(2), 180–189.

Bierman, K. L., Greenberg, M. T., & the Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group. (1996). Social skill training in the FAST Track program. In R. D. Peters, & R. J. McMahon (Eds.), Prevention and early intervention: Childhood disorders, substance abuse and delinquency. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Dishion, T. J., Andrews, D. W., Kavanagh, K., & Soberman, L. H. (1996). Preventive interventions for high risk youth: The adolescent transitions program. In R. D. Peters, & R. J. McMahon (Eds.), Preventing childhood disorders, substance abuse, and delinquency (pp.184–214). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Patterson, G. R., & Narrett, C. M. (1990). The development of a reliable and valid treatment program for aggressive young children. International Journal of Mental Health, 19(3), 19–26.

Prinz, R. J., & Miller, G. E. (1994). Family-based treatment for childhood antisocial behavior: Experimental influences on dropout and engagement. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 62(3), 645–650.

Sanders, M. R. (1996). New directions in behavioral family intervention with children. In T. H. Ollendick, & R. J. Prinz (Eds.), Advances in clinical child psychology (pp. 283–330). New York: Plenum Press.

Serketich, W. J., & Dumas, J. E. (1996). The effectiveness of behavioral parent training to modify antisocial behavior in children: A meta-analysis. Behavior Therapy, 27(2), 171–186.

Taylor, T. K., Schmidt, F., Pepler, D., & Hodgins, C. (1998). A comparison of eclectic treatment with Webster-Stratton's parents and children series in a children's mental health center: A randomized controlled trial. Behavior Therapy, 29(2), 221–240.

Webster-Stratton, C. (1990). Long-term follow-up of families with young conduct-problem children: From preschool to grade school. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 19(2), 114–149.

Webster-Stratton, C. (1994). Advancing videotape parent training: A comparison study. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 62(3), 583–593.

Webster-Stratton, C., & Hammond, M. (1997). Treating children with early-onset conduct problems: A comparison of child and parent training interventions. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 65(1), 93–109.

Webster-Stratton, C., & Herbert, M. (1994). Troubled families, problem children: Working with parents: A collaborative process. Chichester, England: John Wiley and Sons.

Webster-Stratton, C., & Hooven, C. (1998). Parent training for child conduct problems. In T. Ollendick (Ed.), Comprehensive clinical psychology Vol 5: Children and adolescents: Clinical formulation and treatment (pp.186–219). Oxford, England: Pergamon/Elsevier Science.

Session #10: Family Skills Training Approaches: Theory, Core Elements, Outcome Effectiveness, and Evidence-Based Programs

Web Debate Questions: What discriminates family skills training approaches from other family-based interventions? What levels of prevention can this approach be used with? What are general effect sizes found and what is the evidence of effectiveness? Which model programs have been found that have research evidence of effectiveness?

Instructor's Readings:

  1. Strengthening America's Families – see www.strengtheningfamilies.org
  2. Family Skills Training Programs

Required Readings:

Foxcroft, D. R., Ireland, D., Lister-Sharp, D. J., Lowe, G., & Breen, R. (2003). Longer-term primary prevention for alcohol misuse in young people: A systematic review. Addiction, 98, 397–411.

Kumpfer, K. L, Alvarado, R, Tait, C., & Turner, C. (2002). Effectiveness of school-based family and children's skills training for substance abuse prevention among 6–8 year old rural children. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 16(4S), S65–S71.

Kumpfer, K. L. (1998). Selective prevention interventions: The Strengthening Families Program. In R. S. Ashery, E. Robertson, & K. L. Kumpfer (Eds.), Drug abuse prevention through family interventions (NIDA Research Monograph #177, NIH Pub. No. 99-4135. pp. 160–208). Rockville, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse. Available online: www.nida.nih.gov/pdf/monographs/monograph177/160-207_Kumpfer.pdf (Acrobat file).

Lochman, J. E. (2000). Parent and family skills training in targeted prevention programs for at-risk youth. Journal of Primary Prevention, 21(2), 253–266.

Spoth, R., & Redmond, C. (2000). Research on family engagement in preventive interventions: Toward improved use of scientific findings in primary prevention practice. Journal of Primary Prevention, 21(2), 267–284.

Optional Readings:

Kumpfer, K. L., Molgaard, V., & Spoth, R. (1996). The Strengthening Families Program for prevention of delinquency and drug use in special populations. In R. D. Peters, & R. J. McMahon (Eds.), Childhood disorders, substance abuse, and delinquency: Prevention and early intervention approaches. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.

Kumpfer, K. L., Williams, M. K. & Baxley, G. (1997). Drug abuse prevention for at-risk groups (Resource Manual, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Technology Transfer Program, NCADI, # BKD201.NTIS BP#98-113103). Rockville, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse.

Egeland, B., & Erickson, M. F. (1990). Rising above the past: Strategies for helping new mothers break the cycle of abuse and neglect. Zero to Three, 11(2), 29–35.

Forehand, R. L., & McMahon, R. J. (1981). Helping the noncompliant child. A clinician's guide to parent training. New York: Guilford Press.

McDonald, L. (1993). Families together with schools. In promising programs for safe schools. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association Press.

McMahon, R. J., Slough, N. M., & the Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group. (1996). In R. D. Peters, & R. J. McMahon (Eds.), Prevention and early intervention: Childhood disorders, substance abuse and delinquency. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Spoth, R., & Molgaard, V. (1999). Project Family: A partnership integrating research with the practice of promoting family and youth competencies. In T. R. Chibucos, & R. Lerner (Eds), Serving children and families through community-university partnerships: Success stories (pp. 127–137). Boston: Kluwer Academic.

Spoth, R., Redmond, C., & Lepper, H. (in press). Alcohol initiation outcomes of universal family-focused preventive interventions: One-and two-year follow-ups of a controlled study. Journal of Studies on Alcohol [Special NIAAA Issue].

Session #11: Family Therapy Approaches: Theory, Core Elements, Outcome Effectiveness, and Evidence-Based Programs

Web Debate Questions: What are the characteristics that discriminate family therapy approaches from other family-based interventions? What levels of prevention can this approach be used with? What are general effect sizes found and what is the evidence of effectiveness? Which model programs have been found that have research evidence of effectiveness?

Instructor's Readings:

  1. Strengthening America's Families – see www.strengtheningfamilies.org
  2. Family Therapy Approaches

Required Readings:

Alexander, J. F., Robbins, M. S., & Sexton, T. L. (2000). Family-based interventions with older, at-risk youth: From promise to proof to practice. Journal of Primary Prevention, 21(2), 185–206.

Gordon, D. A. (2000). Parent training via CD-ROM: Using technology to disseminate effective prevention practices. Journal of Primary Prevention, 21(2), 227–252.

Optional Readings:

Alexander, J. F., & Parsons, B. V. (1982). Functional family therapy: Principles and procedures. Carmel, CA: Brooks/Cole.

Alexander, J. F., Barton, C., Schiavo, R. S., & Parsons, B. V. (1976). Behavioral intervention with families of delinquents: Therapist characteristics and outcome. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 44(4), 656–664.

Gordon, D. A., Arbruthnot, J., Gustafson, K. A., & McGreen, P. (1998). Home based behavioral-systems family therapy with disadvantaged juvenile delinquents. American Journal of Family Therapy, 16(3), 243–255.

Liddle, H. A. (in press). Family psychology intervention science. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association Press.

Liddle, H. A., & Dakof, G. A. (1995). Efficacy of family therapy for drug abuse: Promising but not definitive. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 21(4), 511–543.

Szapocznik, J., & Williams, R. A. (2000). Brief strategic family therapy: Twenty-five years of interplay among theory, research and practice in adolescent behavior problems and drug abuse. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 3(2), 117–135.

Szapocznik, J., Santisteban, D., Rio, A., Perez-Vidal, A., & Kurtines, W. M. (1985). Family effectiveness training (FET) for Hispanic families: Strategic structural systems intervention for the prevention of drug abuse. In H. P. Lefley, & P. B. Pedersen (Eds.), Cross cultural training for mental professionals (pp. 157–173). Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.

Session #12: In-Home Family Support/Family Preservation: Theory, Core Elements, Outcome Effectiveness, and Evidence-Based Programs

Web Debate Questions: What are the characteristics that discriminate the in-home family support approaches from other family-based interventions? What levels of prevention and ages of the children is this approach generally used with? What are general effect sizes found and what is the evidence of effectiveness? Which model programs have been found that have research evidence of effectiveness?

Instructor's Readings:

  1. Strengthening America's Families – see www.strengtheningfamilies.org
  2. In-Home Family Support Approaches

Required Readings:

Yoshikawa, H. (1994). Prevention as cumulative protection: Effects of early family support and education on chronic delinquency and its risks. Psychological Bulletin, 115(1), 28–54.

Optional Readings:

Gordon, D. A., Arbruthnot, J., Gustafson, K. A., & McGreen, P. (1998). Home based behavioral-systems family therapy with disadvantaged juvenile delinquents. American Journal of Family Therapy, 16(3), 243–255.

Borduin, C. M., Mann, B. J., Cone, L. T., Henggeler, S. W., Fucci, B. R., Blaske, D. M., & Williams, R. A. (1994). Multisystemic treatment of serious juvenile offenders: Long-term prevention of criminality and violence. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 63(4), 569–578.

Session #13: Parent Education Approaches and Parent Involvement in Home Assignment Approaches: Do They Work? How Can We Get Family Programs in Schools and Communities?

Web Debate Questions: What are the distinguishing features of parent education approaches? How effective is this approach and why are they so popular? How can we get more effective evidence-based programs into the schools?

Instructor's Readings:

  1. Family Education or Parent Involvement
  2. Comprehensive, Multi-Component Family Interventions

Required Readings:

Bauman, K. E., Foshee, V. A., Ennett, S. T., Hicks, K., & Pemberton, M. (2001). Family matters: A family-directed program designed to prevent adolescent tobacco and alcohol use. Health Promotion and Practice, 2(1), 81–96.

Optional Readings:

Grady, K., Gersick, K. E., & Boratynski, M. (1985). Preparing parents for teenagers: A step in the prevention of adolescent substance abuse. Family Relations, 34, 541–549.

Flay, B. R., Hansen, W. B., Johnson, C. A., Collins, L. M., Dent, C. W., Dwyer, K. M., et al. (1987). Implementation effectiveness trial of a social influences smoking prevention program using schools and television. Health Education Research, 2, 385–400.

Perry, C. L., Pirie, P., Holder, W., Halper, A., & Dudovitz, B. (1990). Parent involvement in cigarette smoking prevention: Two pilot evaluations of the “Unpuffables Program.” Journal of School Health, 60(9), 443–447.

Perry, C. L., Williams, C. L., Veblen-Mortenson, S., Toomey, T. L., Komro, K. A., Anstine, P. S., et al. (1996). Project Northland: Outcomes of a community-wide alcohol use prevention program during early adolescence. American Journal of Public Health, 86(7), 956–965.

Rohrbach, L. A., Hodgson, C. S., Broder, B. I., Montgomery, S. B., Flay, B. R., Hansen, W. B., et al. (in press). Parental participation in drug abuse prevention: Results from the Midwestern prevention project. The Journal of Research on Adolescence.

McDonald, L., & Moberg, P. (2000). Families and schools together: FAST Strategies for increasing involvement of all parents in schools and preventing drug abuse. In W. B. Hansen, S. M. Giles, & M. D. Fearnow-Kenney (Eds.), Improving prevention effectiveness (ch. 20, pp. 235–250).

St. Pierre, T. L., Mark, M. M., Kaltreider, D. L., & Aikin, K. J. (1997). Involving parents of high-risk youth in drug prevention: A three-year longitudinal study in Boys & Girls Clubs. Journal of Early Adolescence, 17(1), 21–50.

Session #14: Cultural, Age, and Local Adaptations to Increase Effectiveness

Web Debate Questions: What is the difference in culturally sensitive prevention programs and culturally adapted generic programs (i.e., deep structure and surface structure)? How much have prevention programs been modified to work with diverse cultural populations and what are the typical types of modifications made to the program curriculums?

Instructor's Readings:

  1. Cultural Sensitivity in Universal Family-Based Prevention Interventions (unpublished version)
  2. Kumpfer, K. L., Alvarado, R., Smith, P., & Bellamy, N. (2002). Cultural sensitivity and adaptation in family-based prevention interventions. Prevention Science, 3(3), 241–246.

Required Readings:

Turner, W. L (2000). Cultural considerations in family-based primary prevention programs in drug abuse. Journal of Primary Prevention, 21(2), 285–303.

Kumpfer, K. L., & Alvarado, R. (1995). Strengthening families to prevent drug use in multi-ethnic youth. In G. Botvin, S. Schinke, & M. Orlandi (Eds.), Drug abuse prevention with multi-ethnic youth (pp. 253–292). Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.

Optional Readings:

Aktan, G., Kumpfer, K. L., & Turner, C. (1996). The Safe Haven program: Effectiveness of a family skills training program for substance abuse prevention with inner city African American families. International Journal of the Addictions, 31, 158–175.

Coatsworth, J. D., Szapocznik, J., Kurtines, W., & Santisteban, D. A. (1997). Culturally competent psychosocial interventions with antisocial problem behavior in Hispanic youths. In D. M. Stoff, & J. Breiling (Eds.), Handbook of antisocial behavior (pp. 395–404). New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Session #15: Dissemination and Advocacy/Policy Issues: How Can We Get Evidence-Based Family Interventions Adopted Widely

Web Debate Questions: How much have evidence-based practices been adopted by practitioners? Why have evidence-based programs not been implemented by practitioners any more than they have? When evidence-based programs are implemented, how well are they implemented, how effective, and what leads to improved fidelity? Advocacy Questions: What can be done to get more funding for evidence-based programs? What has been done so far to encourage community agencies and schools to implement effective programs?

Optional Practice Assignment (extra 10 points): On government websites, find the organizational structures and staff for the prevention areas of your choice, such as SAMHSA, NIH, OJJDP, DoED, ONDCP. Also find on websites, Who are the key Senators and Congressmen on the appropriations committees from your state that can impact prevention funding in your prevention areas of interest?

Instructor's Readings:

  1. Dissemination
  2. Advocacy
  3. Fidelity Issues

Required Readings:

Backer, T. E. (2000). The failure of success: Challenges of disseminating effective substance abuse prevention programs. Journal of Community Psychology, 28(3), 363–373.

Biglan, A., & Taylor, T. K. (2000). Increasing the use of science to improve child-rearing. Journal of Primary Prevention, 21(2), 207–226.

Kumpfer, K. L., & Alder, S. (2003). Dissemination of research-based family interventions for the prevention of substance abuse. In Z. Sloboda, & W. Bukoski (Eds.), Handbook for drug abuse prevention. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum.

Kumpfer, K. L., & Kaftarian, S. J. (2000). Bridging the gap between family-focused research and substance abuse prevention practice: Preface. Journal of Primary Prevention, 21(2), 169–183.

Optional Readings:

Molgaard, V. K. (1997). The Extension Service as key mechanism for research and services delivery for prevention of mental health disorders in rural areas. American Journal of Community Psychology, 25(4), 515–544.

Rogers, E. M. (1995). Diffusion of innovations (4th ed.). New York: Free Press.

Spoth, R., & Molgaard, V. (1999). Project Family: A partnership integrating research with the practice of promoting family and youth competencies. In T. R. Chibucos, & R. Lerner (Eds.), Serving children and families through community-university partnerships: Success stories (pp.127–137).

Webster-Stratton, C., & Taylor, T. (1998). Adopting and disseminating empirically validated intervention: A recipe for success. In A. Buchanan (Ed.), Parenting, schooling, and children's behavior, supported interventions: A recipe for success. Aldershot, England: Ashgate.

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Published by Harvard Family Research Project