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Introduction

A growing investment in evaluation, for purposes ranging from continuous improvement to accountability, has led to increased requests from the out-of-school time (OST) community for practical evaluation tools. As part of Harvard Family Research Project’s continuing effort to help practitioners and evaluators choose appropriate evaluation methods, this guide describes a select set of instruments and tools that can be obtained and used for on-the-ground program evaluation. Whether you are conducting first-time internal evaluations or large-scale national studies, these evaluation instruments can be used to assess the characteristics and outcomes of your programs, staff, and participants, and to collect other key information.

An evaluation instrument is “a means used to measure or study a person, event, or other object of interest.”1 The instruments used by OST programs take a variety of forms, ranging from checklists of program components, to survey questions measuring self-esteem, to assessments of academic skills, and beyond. The instruments presented here are compiled based on the evaluations and research studies of OST programs in Harvard Family Research Project’s OST Program Research and Evaluation Database.2 Therefore, this resource is not an exhaustive list of the instruments and tools that may be useful to OST programs, but rather a place to provide more information about the tools that have been used in OST studies that we have profiled in the database.

HOW TO USE THIS RESOURCE

Categories of Measurement
The tools are sorted by the following categories and subcategories:

1. Academics

2. Psychological/Social Development

The information in this guide can help practitioners and evaluators find evaluation instruments that match their program and evaluation goals and characteristics. The instruments can be used alone, or in conjunction with publications in our Snapshots series focused on performance measures3 and data collection methods,4 to help you develop an overview of previous evaluations and design future evaluations intended for a range of purposes and stakeholders.

It should be noted that this guide is intended solely as a resource and is not an endorsement of any of the instruments listed. Technical assistance or consultation with professional evaluators may be necessary before selecting or utilizing the measurement tools in this guide.

The evaluation instruments in this guide are presented in tables organized by content area. The instruments fall into five categories, some of which include several subcategories, in order to make the instruments easier to find and use. The categories are listed in the box on the right. These categories are not necessarily mutually exclusive: Because some instruments measure more than one area, they appear in more than one category. In addition, the multicomponent scales may contain subscales relating to other areas. Some instruments were excluded from the tables due to the expense of administering them or difficulty obtaining them (e.g., Stanford Achievement Test, 9th edition [SAT-9]).

Whenever possible, Internet links or bibliographic citations are provided to facilitate access to the instruments.5 The guide also denotes which measurements are available for free or which may be purchased. In addition, the names of the research studies or programs whose evaluations used the instrument are provided, along with a link to the related profile in the OST Database, so that readers can see examples of how and where the instruments were used. (In a number of cases, the program evaluators may have adapted or modified these instruments, rather than using them in their entirety.) Where feasible, sample items from each instrument are included.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
A version of this report was originally published as part of HFRP’s OST Evaluation Snapshot series in November 2005, and was updated and re-published in August 2008.  We would like to thank the original authors of the publication, Christopher Wimer, Suzanne Bouffard, and Priscilla M. D. Little, as well as Claire Brown Goss, who updated the report in 2008. In addition, we would like to thank Carly Bourne and Naomi Stephen for their editorial support.


1. Weiss, C. H. (1998). Evaluation (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
2. HFRP’s database contains profiles of out-of-school time (OST) program evaluations, which are searchable on a wide range of criteria. It is available in the OST section of the HFRP website at http://www.hfrp.org/OSTDatabase.
3. Little, P. M. D., Harris, E., & Bouffard, S. (2004). Performance measures in out-of-school time evaluation. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Family Research Project. Available at http://www.hfrp.org/PerformanceMeasuresinOSTEvaluation
4. Bouffard, S., & Little, P. M. D. (2004). Detangling data collection: Methods for gathering data. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Family Research Project. Available at http://www.hfrp.org/DetanglingDataCollection
5. In some cases, we were unable to access the instrument’s original reference source to verify whether it contained the entire instrument, or whether the instrument was simply adapted from the reference. In these instances, the sources are listed as unverified.

 


Table 1.1 Academic Achievement

This table is a compilation of instruments used to assess academic achievement. Some academic achievement measures, such as standardized tests, were excluded from this list due to the expense of administering them or difficulty obtaining them (e.g., Stanford Achievement Test, 9th edition [SAT-9]). For examples of how these assessments were used, please consult the individual profiles in HFRP’s OST Program Research and Evaluation Database. Please also note that additional measures of academic achievement may be available in Table 2.8: Multicomponent/Comprehensive Surveys.

print icon Download printable version of Table 1.1 (PDF, 266 KB)

Instrument Name &
Description
Sample Items/
Item Description
OST Evaluations Using the Instrument References &
Availability
Basic Reading Inventory (BRI)
This inventory for preK–12 students assigns a grade-level reading designation.
Youth read specific word lists and text passages and then respond to comprehension questions that follow. Communities Organizing Resources to Advance Learning (CORAL) Initiative Available for purchase at: www.kendallhunt.com/bri/
Computer Use, Confidence, Attitudes, and Knowledge Questionnaire
The instrument measures youth’s computer use, confidence, attitudes, and knowledge. It is organized into four sections: demographic characteristics, computer use and experience, computer attitudes and confidence, and perceived computer knowledge.
Sample items in the attitudes and confidence section include “I feel comfortable working with computers” and “boys usually do better than girls in computer courses,” and are rated on scale from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree). Girls Creating Games Available in:
Levine, T., & Donitsa-Schmidt, S. (1998). Computer use, confidence, attitudes, and knowledge: A causal analysis. Computers in Human Behavior, 14, 125–146.
Developmental Reading Assessment (DRA-2)
These assessments for K–8 students help teachers identify students’ strengths and reading abilities.          
Tests assess reading abilities through a series of progressively challenging stories based on accuracy in reading aloud, retelling, and answering questions about the stories. KindergARTen Summer Camp

Yale Study of Children’s After-School Time
Available for purchase at: www.pearsonschool.com
/redirect.cfm?programId=
23661&acornSiteId=41
Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS): Letter Naming Fluency
This standardized test provides a measure of risk for students’ difficulties in achieving early literacy benchmark goals.
Students are presented with a page of upper- and lower-case letters arranged in a random order and are asked to name as many letters as they can in one minute. KindergARTen Summer Camp Available for free at:
https://dibels.uoregon.edu
/measures/lnf.php
Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test
This norm-referenced test measures reading skills of kindergarten through adult readers. It covers both vocabulary and comprehension.   
Items assess literacy concepts, oral language concepts, letters and letter-sound correspondences, listening (story) comprehension, basic story words, word decoding, comprehension, and word knowledge. BELL Accelerated Learning Summer Program Available for purchase at: www.riverpub.com/products /gmrt/index.html and
www.riverpub.com/products /gmrtOnline/index.html (online version)
Informal Reading Inventory (IRI)
This standardized reading test is composed of a series of graded word lists and passages used to determine decoding and comprehension skills. Five types of comprehension questions follow each reading passage: topic, fact, inference, evaluation, and vocabulary.
Youth read specific word lists and reading passages and then respond to questions that follow. Youth Education for Tomorrow Information available in:
Johns, J. L. (1996). Using Informal Reading Inventories in classroom and clinic. In L. R. Putnam (Ed.), How to become a better reading teacher: Strategies for assessment and intervention (pp. 113–122). Columbus, OH: Merrill.
Mock Report Card: Academic Grades
This measure standardizes information about students’ academic performance across districts that use different grading systems. The scale is completed by teachers and measures performance in reading and oral/written language, math, science, and social studies.           
Teachers rate students’ performance in school subjects using a scale from 1 (failing) to 5 (excellent). Promising After-School Programs Information available in:
Pierce, K. M., Hamm, J. V., & Vandell, D. L. (1999). Experiences in after-school programs and children’s adjustment in first-grade class classrooms. Child Development, 70, 756–767.
Puzzle Tanks Test
This test measures whether problem-solving skills learned in game-based settings carry over into problem-solving skills more generally.          
Youth are shown a diagram consisting of one unlimited supply tank, two tanks of set sizes that can be filled from the unlimited tank or from the set size other tank, and a truck at the bottom. Youth are asked to measure some amount of “Wonder Juice” into the truck below. The required amount does not match the size of the limited tanks, so the youth must pour between the tanks to fill the truck. Fifth Dimension Available for free at: www.psych.ucsb.edu/~mayer /fifth_dim_website
/HTML/puzzle_tanks /pt_home.html
Receptive One-Word Picture Vocabulary Test (ROWPVT)
This norm-referenced tool measures a child’s receptive vocabulary and allows for a comparison of growth in vocabulary relative to growth among similar youth nationally. It is available in English and Spanish.
Youth are given groups of pictures and asked to point to the object being named. The total number of words correctly identified and the proportion of correct words identified in each language are recorded.    AfterSchool KidzLit® Available for purchase at:
www.academictherapy.com
/detailATP.tpl?action=search&
cart=13064251082015875&
TBL=ATP&eqskudatarq=8547-8
Slosson Oral Reading Test (SORT-R3)
This screening tool, for preschoolers through adults, is designed to quickly assess grade and age reading level.          
Youth read aloud from a list of 20 words, which varies based on grade level.  Mt. Olivet After-School Program Available for purchase at:
www.slosson.com
/onlinecatalogstore
_c51705.html
STAR Early Literacy Assessment
This instrument assesses 41 early literacy skills in 7 areas: general readiness, graphophonemic knowledge, phonemic awareness, comprehension, phonics, vocabulary, and structural analysis.
Children follow oral instructions to complete items in this computer-based assessment. Measurements include matching numbers and objects, identifying rhyming words, matching words with pictures, and recognizing letter sounds. Save the Children’s Model Literacy Initiative Available for purchase at:
www.renlearn.com/sel/
STAR Reading Assessment
This instrument assesses 36 reading skills in five domains: word knowledge and skills, analyzing literary text, understanding author’s craft, comprehension strategies and constructing meaning, and analyzing argument and evaluating text.
Skills measured include using structural analysis, identifying and understanding elements of plot, and evaluating reasoning and support.   Save the Children’s Model Literacy Initiative Available for purchase at:
www.renlearn.com/sr/
Students as Agents of Change
This instrument measures youth’s perceived computer skills and use through 39 closed-ended and 5 open-ended items.
Youth rate statements such as “I am good at using the computer to do presentations for school” on a 4-point scale ranging from 1 (never/rarely true) to 4 (almost always true).  Youth self-assess skills including “operation of a zip drive” and “create a table” on a 5-point scale ranging from 1 (I don’t know what this means) to 5 (I can teach someone how to do this. I am an expert.).  Girls Creating Games Available for free at:
http://oerl.sri.com
/instruments/tech/studsurv
/instr141/instr141.html
Terra Nova (formerly known as the Comprehensive Test of Basic Skills [CTBS])
This K–12 norm-referenced test compares how students perform in relation to other U.S. students in basic skills of reading, language, mathematics, science, and social studies.
      
The test covers reading and math for Grades K–12, language for Grades 3–12, and science and social studies for Grades 1–12. Items have multiple choice responses. Teach Baltimore (the former CTBS version was used) Available for purchase at:
http://www.ctb.com
/ctb.com/control/product
FamilyViewAction?p=
products&productFamilyId=449
Wide Range Achievement Test—Revised
This measure of academic achievement consists of three subtests: reading (42 items), spelling (40 items), and arithmetic (40 items).
Items involve recognizing and naming letters and words; writing symbols, names, and words; and solving oral arithmetic programs and written computations. Generación Diez Available for purchase at:
http://portal.wpspublish.com
/portal/page?_pageid=53,
118660&_dad=portal&_
schema=PORTAL&cmp=20
_google&kw=wide%20range
%20achievement%20test
Word Problem Comprehension Test (WPCT)
This 12-item test measures students’ comprehension of arithmetic word problems.

The following is a sample question from the test:

Which numbers are needed to do this problem?: A package of 3 toys costs 88 cents. Richie bought 2 packages. How many toys did he buy?

a. 3, 88, 2
b. 3, 88
c. 88, 2
d. 3, 2
Fifth Dimension Available for free at: www.psych.ucsb.edu/~mayer /fifth_dim_website/HTML/wpct /wpct_home.html

 

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Table 1.2 Academic/Educational Attitudes and Values

This table is a compilation of instruments used to assess academic/educational attitudes and values. For examples of how these assessments were used, please consult the individual profiles in HFRP’s OST Program Research and Evaluation Database. Please also note that additional measures of academic/educational attitudes and values may be available in Table 2.8: Multicomponent/Comprehensive Surveys.

Download printable version of Table 1.2 (PDF, 336 KB)

Instrument Name &
Description
Sample Items/
Item Description
OST Evaluations Using the Instrument References &
Availability
Academic Perceptions Inventory (API)
This instrument, for students in kindergarten through college, measures perceived ability in reading and arithmetic.
Youth use a very sad to very happy scale to express ability. BELL Accelerated Learning Summer Program Information available in:
Soares, L. M., & Soares, A. T. (2000). Academic perceptions inventory: Test manual/Advanced level. Trumbull, CT: Castle Consultants.
Children’s Attitude to Computer Questionnaire
This 11-item tool measures primary school-aged children’s attitudes toward computers using three subscales: usefulness, fun, and ease of use.
Children rate statements such as “I like using computers in my free time” and “It is hard to learn how to use a computer,” on a 5-point scale from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree). Girls Creating Games Available in:
Todman, J., & Dick, G. (1993). Primary children and teachers' attitudes to computers. Computers and Education, 20, 199–203.
Computer Use, Confidence, Attitudes, and Knowledge Questionnaire
The instrument measures youth’s computer use, confidence, attitudes, and knowledge. It is organized into four sections: demographic characteristics, computer use and experience, computer attitudes and confidence, and perceived computer knowledge.
Sample items in the attitudes and confidence section include “I feel comfortable working with computers” and “Boys usually do better than girls in computer courses,” and are rated on a 5-point scale from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree). Girls Creating Games Available in:
Levine, T., & Donitsa-Schmidt, S. (1998). Computer use, confidence, attitudes, and knowledge: A causal analysis: Computers in Human Behavior, 14, 125–146.
Elementary Reading Attitude Survey
This assessment measures youth’s recreational reading and academic reading attitudes.
Questions include “How do you feel about reading in class?” and “How do you feel about reading for fun at home?” Youth respond using a 4-point Likert scale with pictorial anchors of Garfield showing various emotions. Afterschool Literacy Coaching Initiative of Boston Available for free at: http://www.professorgarfield.org
/parents_teachers/printables
/reading.html
Harter Self-Perception Profile for Children/Adolescents
This scale measures youth’s perceived competence in academics and other areas (e.g., athletics), and their general sense of self-worth. It is intended for children over age 8, and has also been adapted specifically for adolescents.        
Youth read two statements and choose the description that is more like them; for example, youth are asked to choose either “Some kids often forget what they learn” or “Other kids can remember things easily.” Youth then choose whether the description is really true or sort of true of themselves.

Across Ages

Big Brothers Big Sisters

Thunderbirds Teen Center

Woodrock Youth Development Project

Girlfriends for KEEPS

Unverified sources:
Harter, S. (1985). The Self-Perception Profile for Children: Revision of the Perceived Competence Scale for Children. Denver, CO: University of Denver; and Harter, S. (1988). Manual for the Adolescent Self-Perception Profile. Denver, CO: Author.

Information also available in:1
Harter, S. (1982). The perceived competence scale for children. Child Development, 53, 87–97.
Mock Report Card: Work Habits Scale
This scale is completed by teachers and measures the classroom work habits of youth.
Teachers rate youth on items such as “follows classroom procedures” and “completes work promptly,” on a scale from 1 (very poor) to 5 (very good).   Promising After-School Programs Information available in:
Pierce, K. M., Hamm, J. V., & Vandell, D. L. (1999). Experiences in after-school programs and children’s adjustment in first-grade class classrooms. Child Development, 70, 756–767.
Perception of Ability Scale for Students
This scale includes 70 items measuring school-related self-concept for children in Grades 3–6.
Youth report yes or no to statements such as “I am good at arithmetic” and “I find spelling hard.” BELL After-School Instructional Curriculum

BELL Accelerated Learning Summer Program
Available in:
Boersma, F. J., & Chapman, J. W. (1992). Perception of ability scale for students. Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services.
Piers-Harris Children’s Self-Concept Scale—2nd edition
This 60-item self-reported scale assesses general self-esteem in children aged 7–18, and has six subscales: behavior, intellectual and school status, physical appearance and attributes, anxiety, popularity, and happiness and satisfaction.
Items are simple descriptive statements written at a second grade reading level. Youth indicate whether each item applies to them by selecting a yes or no response. (A Spanish Test Booklet is available for children who read Spanish only.) Project EMERGE Available for purchase at:
http://portal.wpspublish.com
/portal/page?_pageid=53,
112628&_dad=portal&
_schema=PORTAL
Student Survey for Girls in Science and Technology
This 48-item instrument measures girls’ attitudes and beliefs about scientists and scientific careers.
Girls indicate their belief in statements such as “When I think about a scientist, I think of a person who sits in a laboratory all day” and “Scientists are good for society because they help find cures,” using a 6-point scale ranging from strongly agree to strongly disagree. Girls Creating Games Available for free at: http://oerl.sri.com/instruments
/up/studsurv/instr127.html
Teacher Expectancy of Academic Performance Scale (TEAPS)
This scale assesses teachers’ expectations of students’ academic potential.
Teachers rate students on a series of 7-point Likert scales ranging from 1 (far below average) to 7 (far above average). Hispanic After School Program Information available in:
Gerard, H. B., & Miller, N. (1975). School desegregation: A long term study. New York: Plenum Press.

 

 1. This measure was later revised and the name changed to the Harter Self-Perception Profile for Children.

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Table 2.1 Future Orientation/Future Plans

This table is a compilation of instruments used to assess future orientation/future plans. For examples of how these assessments were used, please consult the individual profiles in HFRP’s OST Program Research and Evaluation Database. Please also note that additional measures of future orientation/future plans may be available in Table 2.8: Multicomponent/Comprehensive Surveys.

print icon Download printable version of Table 2.1 (PDF, 283 KB)

Instrument Name &
Description
Sample Items/
Item Description
OST Evaluations Using the Instrument References &
Availability
Career Maturity Inventory
This inventory measures youth’s attitudes and competence about work and making future career decisions.
Youth report their if they agree/disagree with statements such as “you should choose an occupation that gives you a chance to help others” and “I plan to follow the line of work my parents suggest.” Louisiana State Youth Opportunities Unlimited Unverified source:
Crites, J. O. (1995). Career Maturity Inventory sourcebook. Ottawa, CAN: Careerware.
Future Aspirations Scale
This seven-item scale for middle school youth measures attitudes and commitment toward the future, such as finishing high school, going to college, and being successful in a career.
Youth answer questions such as “How important is it to you to go to college?” and “Do you think you will be successful in a job or career?” Responses are either on a scale of very to not at all, or in a yes/no format. Gevirtz Homework Project Information available in:
East, P. L. (1996). The younger sisters of childbearing adolescents: Their attitudes, expectations, and behaviors. Child Development, 67(2), 267–282.
Future Goals Scale
This scale from the Personal Experience Inventory assesses 12- to 18-year-old youth’s planning for and thinking about future plans, goals, expectations, etc.
Not available Hmong Youth Pride Available for purchase (as part of Personal Experience Inventory) at:
http://portal.wpspublish.com
/portal/page?_pageid=
53,102631&_dad=portal&
_schema=PORTAL
Possible Selves (Future Orientation)
This measure consists of open-ended probes related to how youth see themselves at certain points in the future.        
Youth are asked to list three hoped-for, expected, and feared future “selves” in response to the following prompts:

Hoped-for selves: “Many people have in mind some things they want to be like in the future regardless of how likely it is that they will actually be that way or do those things. These are the kinds of selves that you would hope to be like. Please list below three possible selves that you most hope to describe you in the next year.”

Expected selves: “Please list below three possible selves that are most likely to be true of you in the next year.”

Feared selves: “Please list below three possible selves that you most fear or worry about being in the next year.”
School-to-Jobs Programme Information available in:
Oyserman, D., & Markus, H. (1990). Possible selves and delinquency. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59, 112–125.

Unverified sources:
Oyserman, D., & Markus, H. (1990). Possible selves in balance: Implications for delinquency. Journal of Social Issues, 46, 141–157; and Oyserman, D., & Markus, H. (1993). The sociocultural self. In J. Suls & A. G. Greenwald (Eds.), Psychological perspectives on the self (Vol. 4), pp. 187–220. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

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Table 2.2 Life Events and Experiences

This table is a compilation of instruments used to assess life events and experiences. For examples of how these assessments were used, please consult the individual profiles in HFRP’s OST Program Research and Evaluation Database. Please also note that some measures of life events and experiences may be available in Table 2.8: Multicomponent/Comprehensive Surveys.

print icon Download printable version of Table 2.2 (PDF, 283 KB)

Instrument Name &
Description
Sample Items/
Item Description
OST Evaluations Using the Instrument References &
Availability
Daily Hassles Questionnaire
Designed for older youth, this set of scales measures the presence and intensity of youth’s experiences of hassles in their daily lives.
Youth indicate whether an event or situation happened during the past month and, if so, the extent to which it was a hassle on a 4-point scale ranging from 1 (not at all a hassle) to 4 (a very big hassle). Events and situations include “no good place at home to do school work,” “pressure or expectations from parents,” and “having to take care of brothers or sisters.” Siblings of Children With Developmental Disabilities After School Support Program Information available in:
Rowlison, R. T., & Felner, R. D. (1988). Major life events, hassles, and adaptation in adolescence: Confounding in the conceptualization and measurement of life stress and adjustment revisited. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 55(3), 432–444.
EZ–Yale Personality Questionnaire (EZPQ)
This 37-item questionnaire measures five motivational factors identified in previous research with individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities: expectancy of success, outer-directedness, effectance motivation, positive reaction tendency, and negative reaction tendency.
Teachers rate youth on such items as “child works earnestly, doesn’t take it lightly,” “child is easily discouraged” and “child carries out requests responsibly,” on a scale of 1 (very much untrue of the child) to 5 (very much true of the child).   Yale Study of Children’s After-School Time Unverified source:
Zigler, E., Bennett-Gates, D., & Hodapp, R. (1999). Assessing personality traits of individuals with mental retardations. In E. Zigler & D. Bennett-Gates (Eds.), Personality development in individuals with mental retardation. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
GEMS Activity Questionnaire
This instrument evaluates African American girls’ typical daily activities. It includes a checklist of 28 activities, along with pictures of these activities.          
For each picture of an activity (e.g. sports, outdoor play, chores, homework, TV, etc.), girls check off whether they had engaged in it yesterday, the duration of the activity, whether they “usually” engage in it, and the frequency of engagement.  Girlfriends for KEEPS Available for free at:
www.bcm.edu/cnrc/faculty
/Survey_documents
/GEMSQnrs(01-02)
/GIRLSFORMS/GEMS-
GAQ.pdf
Life Events Checklist
This checklist measures stressful life events. It consists of 46 life event items, with space for additional listings and ratings of life events. It measures both positive and negative life events over the past 12 months.
Events include “I got a bad mark on a test,” “I got sent to the principal,” and “Someone threatened me.” Teens answer yes or no as to whether or not each event listed occurred in their lives. Thunderbirds Teen Center Assessment adapted from:
Pryor-Brown, L., & Cowen, E. L. (1989). Stressful life events, support, and children's school adjustment. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 18(3), 214–220.

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Table 2.3 Mental Health and Behavior

This table is a compilation of instruments used to assess mental health and behavior. For examples of how these assessments were used, please consult the individual profiles in HFRP’s OST Program Research and Evaluation Database. Please also note that additional measures of mental health and behavior may be available in Table 2.8: Multicomponent/Comprehensive Surveys.

print icon Download printable version of Table 2.3 (PDF, 303 KB)

Instrument Name &
Description
Sample Items/
Item Description
OST Evaluations Using the Instrument References &
Availability
Aggression, Mood, and Learning Disabilities Scale (AML)
This scale is a quick screening device for the early identification of school maladaptation and is used by teachers to rate the frequency of occurrence of each of 11 behaviors.
Teachers rate youth behaviors of fighting, classroom disruption, restlessness, unhappiness, impulsivity, sickness, moodiness, and difficulties with learning, on a 5-point scale ranging from seldom or never to all of the time. Hispanic After School Program Available for purchase at:
www.childrensinstitute.net
/store/assessment-measures
Child Adjustment Scale
This parent-completed scale includes 35 items measuring a child’s socio-emotional adjustment, which includes scales of work habits, peer relations, and compliance.
Parents rate youth on items include “listens when others are talking,” “takes turns,” “hits other kids,” and “wants to do well in school” using a 4-point scale from 1 (hardly ever) to 4 (almost always). Promising After-School Programs Available for free at:
www.gse.uci.edu/childcare
/pdf/questionnaire_interview
/Child%20Adjustment%20
Scale.pdf
Child Behavior Checklist
This checklist contains measures of youth’s behavior problems and various competencies as reported by parents or other caregivers who know the child well. A teacher-reported form has also been developed.
Adults rate various behaviors of youth (e.g., “argues a lot,” “demands a lot of attention”) as either 0 (not true), 1 (somewhat true), or 2 (very true). New Orleans ADEPT Available for free at:
www.icpsr.umich.edu/icpsrweb
/PHDCN/descriptions/cbcl-
w1-w2-w3.jsp
Child Behavior Scale
This teacher-reported scale measures students’ aggressive, withdrawn, and prosocial behaviors.
Teachers rate such items as, “compromises in conflict with classmates,” and “annoys or irritates classmates,” using a 3-point scale: 0 (not true), 1 (sometime true), and 2 (often true). Promising After-School Programs Information available in:
Ladd, G. W., & Profilet, S. M. (1996). The Child Behavior Scale: A teacher-report measure of young children’s aggressive, withdrawn, and prosocial behaviors. Developmental Psychology, 32(6), 1008–1024.
Children's Depression Inventory (CDI)
These 27 items quantify depressive symptoms in youth aged 7–17. This assessment also contains a short form of 10 items for quick screening.
For each items, the youth selects the sentence that best describes himself or herself during the past 2 weeks.
Sample statement set:
a. I am sad once in a while.
b. I am sad many times.
c. I am sad all the time.
Siblings of Children With Developmental Disabilities After School Support Program Available for purchase at:
www.pearsonassessments.com
/HAIWEB/Cultures/en-us
/Productdetail.htm?Pid=
015-8044-762
Children’s Report of Parent Behavior Inventory
This assessment measures youth’s perceptions of parents’ behaviors across multiple categories including parental support, autonomy granting, and discipline.
Sample items include “does not approve of my spending a lot of time away from home” and “often praises me.” Rural After-School Programs Information available in:
Schaefer, E. S. (1965). Children’s reports of parental behavior: An inventory. Child Development, 36, 417–424.
Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale—Revised
Composed of 37 items, this scale measures the level and nature of anxiety in youth aged 6–19. Subscales include physiological anxiety, worry/oversensitivity, and concentration anxiety.
Youth answer yes or no to whether a series of statements are true for themselves, such as: “I worry about what other people think about me” and “I am nervous.” Siblings of Children With Developmental Disabilities After School Support Program Available for purchase at:
http://portal.wpspublish.com
/portal/page?_pageid=
53,234661&_dad=portal&
_schema=PORTAL
Diagnostic Interview for Children and Adolescents-IV
This instrument assesses psychiatric problems in children and adolescents through two self-report interviews. The computer version supplements a full clinical examination by covering a wide range of symptoms in a relatively short period of time.   
The instrument contains a number of scales and forms covering topics such as psychotic symptoms, psychological stressors, and eating disorders. Project Back-on-Track Available for purchase at:
www.mhs.com/product.aspx?
gr=edu&prod=dicaiv&
id=overview
Hopelessness Scale for Children
This 17-item scale measures dimensions of hopelessness and helplessness.
Youth report whether statements such as “All I can see ahead of me are bad things, not good things,” and “Things just won’t work out the way I want them to” are true or untrue. Go Grrrls Available in:
Kazdin, A. E., Rogers, A., & Colbus, D. (1986). The Hopelessness Scale for children: Psychometric characteristics and concurrent validity. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 54, 241–245.
Mental Health Inventory
This scale measures youth’s self-reported moods and emotional states. The inventory assesses psychological distress and well-being through five lower-order factors—anxiety, depression, emotional ties, general positive affect, and loss of behavioral/emotional control.
Youth respond to questions such as “How much of the time, during the past month, have you felt downhearted and blue?” and “How much of the time, during the past month, have you felt calm and peaceful?” Across Ages Available for free at:
http://amhocn.org/static/files
/assets/8d6994c3
/Mental_Health_Inventory.pdf
Nowicki-Strickland Locus of Control Instrument
This 40-item instrument measures the degree to which children connect their actions to the outcomes that result from them (internal vs. external control).
Youth answer yes or no to questions such as “Do you believe that most problems will solve themselves if you just don’t fool around with them?” and “Do you believe that wishing can make good things happen?” Baltimore's After School Strategy—A-Teams Available for purchase at:
http://store.ets.org
/DRHM/store?Action=Display
ProductSearchResultsPage&
SiteID=ets&Locale=en_US&
CallingPageID=ProductDetails
Page&keywords=Nowicki&
x=0&y=0
Social Health Profile (SHP)
This 39-item teacher-completed tool measures social skills and behavior problems in students. Ratings are given for frequency of observed behavior in the domains of social competence and behavior problems.
Examples of social competence items include “friendly,” “controls temper,” and “can calm down when excited.” Examples of behavior problem items include “yells at others,” “fights,” and “takes others’ property.” Teachers rate items on a 5-point scale from almost never to almost always. Generación Diez Unverified source:
Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group. (1991). Social Health Profile. Durham, NC: Author.

Information Available at:
www.fasttrackproject.org
/technical-reports.php#shs
School Social Behavior Scale (SSBS2)
This scale consists of ratings completed by teachers and other school personnel of both social skills and antisocial problem behaviors of children and adolescents in school settings. The Social Competence scale includes 32 items measuring adaptive, prosocial skills through three subscales: Peer Relations, Self Management/Compliance, and Academic Behavior. The Antisocial Behavior scale includes 32 items measuring socially relevant problem behaviors and also includes three subscales: Hostile/Irritable, Antisocial-Aggressive, and Defiant/Disruptive.
Social Competence items include statements such as “follows classroom rules,” “has good leadership skills,” and “remains calm when problems arise.” Antisocial Behavior items include statements such as “gets into fights,” “is easily irritated,” and “whines and complains.” Teachers rate each item about the target child from 1 (never) to 5 (frequently). BELL After-School Instructional Curriculum  Available for purchase at:
www.brookespublishing.com/
store/books/merrell-
sbs/index.htm
Self-Reported Behavior Index
A self-report measure completed by youth about behavior and substance use since the start of the school year or term.
Youth rate their conduct in response to items such as “gotten into a fight at school,” “doing something your parents told you not to do,” and items about use of tobacco, alcohol, and other drugs on a 5-point scale from 0 (never) to 4 (almost every day). Promising After-School Programs Information available in:
Brown, B. B., Clasen, D. R., & Eicher, S. A. (1986). Perceptions of peer pressure, peer conformity, dispositions, and self-reported behavior among adolescents. Developmental Psychology, 22, 521–530.
Teacher–Child Rating Scale
These teacher-reported scales of youth’s classroom behavior include conduct problems, learning problems, shyness/anxious problems, frustration tolerance, work habits, assertive social skills, and peer sociability.
Teachers respond to various behaviors and characteristics of the target youth (e.g., “disruptive in class,” “comfortable as a leader”) using 5-point scales. For problem behaviors, the scales range from 1 (not a problem) to 5 (very serious problem), and for competencies, the scales range from 1 (not at all) to 5 (very well). 21st Century Community Learning Centers— Chinatown YMCA

Gevirtz Homework Project

New Orleans ADEPT

Rural After-School Programs
 
Virtual Y
Available for purchase at:
www.childrensinstitute.net/store
/assessment-measures#T-CRS

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Table 2.4 Relationships

This table is a compilation of instruments used to assess relationships with families, peers, etc.   For examples of how these assessments were used, please consult the individual profiles in HFRP’s OST Program Research and Evaluation Database. Please also note that additional measures of relationships may be available in Table 2.8: Multicomponent/Comprehensive Surveys.

print icon Download printable version of Table 2.4 (PDF, 311 KB)

Instrument Name &
Description
Sample Items/
Item Description
OST Evaluations Using the Instrument References &
Availability
Children’s Report of Parent Behavior Inventory
This assessment measures youth’s perceptions of parents’ behaviors across multiple categories including parental support, autonomy granting, and discipline.
Sample items include “does not approve of my spending a lot of time away from home” and “often praises me.” Rural After-School Programs Information available in:
Schwarz, J. C., & Mearns, J. (1989). Assessing parental childrearing behaviors: A comparison of parent, child, and aggregate ratings from two instruments. Journal of Research in Personality, 23, 450–468; and Schaefer, E. S. (1965). Children’s reports of parental behavior: An inventory. Child Development, 36, 417–424.
F.A.C.E.S. IV
This scale measures youth’s and other family members’ perceptions of family functioning, adaptability, and cohesiveness.
Youth rate statements such as “Family members are supportive of each other during difficult times” and “Family members go along with what the family decides to do” on a 5-point scale. Responses range from almost never (1) to almost always (5). Thunderbirds Teen Center Available for purchase at:
www.facesiv.com/
Facts on Aging
This scale measures youth’s knowledge about elders.          
Youth respond true or false to statements such as “The majority of old people (past 65 years) have Alzheimer’s disease,” and “Clinical depression occurs more frequently in older than younger people.” Across Ages Unverified source:
Palmore, E. (1977). Facts on aging: A short quiz. The Gerontologist, 17, 315–320.
Family Assessment Measure (FAM–III)
This 134-item assessment for pre-adolescents through adults measures family functioning by examining family strengths and weaknesses on three scales: general, self-rating, and dyadic. Together, these scales give a complete picture of how family members view levels of family interaction.
General items include “Family duties are fairly shared,” self-rating items include “My family expects too much of me,” and dyadic items include “This person and I are not close to each other.” The items are scored on a 4-point scale from strongly agree to strongly disagree. Generación Diez Available for purchase at:
https://ecom.mhs.com/%28S%
28jigtfbmprpzxwsb3v4m2vv45
%29%29/inventory.aspx?gr=
edu&prod=famiii&id=pricing&
RptGrpID=fam
Family Environment Scale
This scale consists of 10 subscales that measure youth’s and parents’ perceptions of families’ cohesion, expressiveness, conflict, independence, achievement orientation, intellectual-cultural orientation, active-recreational orientation, moral-religious emphasis, organization, and control.
Youth indicate whether statements such as “Family members often keep their feelings to themselves” and “Family members really help and support one another” are true or false. Siblings of Children With Developmental Disabilities After School Support Program Available for purchase at:
www.mindgarden.com
/products/fescs.htm#ms
Family Relationships Scale
This scale from the Personal Experience Inventory assesses how well 12- to 18-year-olds get along with their parents and whether there is parent–child conflict.
Not available. Hmong Youth Pride Available for purchase (as part of Personal Experience Inventory) at:
http://portal.wpspublish.com
/portal/page?_pageid=
53,102631&_dad=portal&
_schema=PORTAL
Features of Children’s Friendship
This scale measures various aspects of youth’s friendship relationships, such as intimacy, conflict, and instrumental and emotional support.
Sample questions include: “When you feel sad or upset, how often does [friend’s name] try to cheer you up?” and “Does [friend’s name] ever annoy or bug you?” Big Brothers Big Sisters Information available in:
Berndt, T. J., & Perry, T. B. (1986). Children’s perceptions of friendships as supportive relationships. Developmental Psychology, 82, 319–326.
Interpersonal Competence Scale (ICS)
This instrument completed by teachers is a set of rating scales to measure social competence by using items related to aggression and popularity.
Teachers rate youth on items such as “gets into trouble,” “gets into fights,” “argues,” “popular with boys/girls,” and “has lots of friends,” using a scale of 1 (very much untrue of the child) to 5 (very much true of the child). Yale Study of Children’s After-School Time Available in:
Cairns, R. B., Leung, M-C., Gest, S. D., & Cairns, B. D. (1995). A brief method for assessing social development: Structure, reliability, stability, and developmental validity of the interpersonal competence scale. Behaviour Research and Therapy Incorporating Behavioural Assessment, 33, 725–736.
Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment
This scale measures various qualities of youth’s relationships with parents and peers, such as trust, quality of communication, and feelings of anger and alienation.       
Youth report the frequency with which statements such as “I trust my parents,” or “My friends accept me as I am” are true. Responses range from almost always or always true, to almost never or never true. Big Brothers Big Sisters Available for free at:
www.docstoc.com/docs
/25740564/Inventory-of-
Parent-and-Peer-
Attachment-%28IPPA%29
Inventory of Parent Influence
Three versions of this instrument exist to capture children’s, fathers’, and mothers’ perceptions of parents’ involvement in their children’s education. The instrument includes five scales: parental pressure, parental psychological support, parent help, press for intellectual development, and monitoring and time management.   
Sample statements from the parent version include “I think my child can do better in school than he/she does” and “I supervise my child’s homework.” Sample statements from the child version include “My parents are satisfied if I do my best” and “My parents help me study before a test.”    Rural After-School Programs Information available in:
Campbell, J. R. (1996). Developing cross-national instruments: Using cross-national methods and procedures. International Journal of Educational Research, 25, 485–496.
Parent–Teacher Involvement Questionnaire (PTI)
This 26-item measure assesses facets of parent–teacher involvement. Subscales include frequency of contact between parents and teachers, and assessments of the frequency with which parents engage in various activities.    
Sample items include true/false questions such as, “In the past year, you stopped by your child’s school to talk to his/her teacher,” and rating activities such as reading to children, taking them to the library, and volunteering at school. The items are scored on 5-point scales from 0 (no involvement) to 4 (high involvement). Generación Diez Available for free at:
www.fasttrackproject.org
/techrept/p/ptp/index.php
Perceived Social Support Scale—Revised
This scale’s 30 items measure youth’s perceived social support from family, school personnel, and peers. It was revised for applicability to early adolescents.
Youth respond to statements such as “School personnel/ community center staff are good at helping me solve problems,” and “My friends are sensitive to my personal needs.” Siblings of Children With Developmental Disabilities After School Support Program Information available in:
DuBois, D. L., Felner, R. D., Brand, S., Phillips, R. S. C., & Lease, A. L. (1996). Early adolescent self-esteem: A developmental framework and assessment strategy. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 6, 543–579.

Original version of scale available in:
Procidino, M. E., & Heller, K. (1983). Measures of perceived social support from friends and from family: Three validation studies. American Journal of Community Psychology, 11, 1–24.
Prosocial Behavior Scale
This measure is completed by teachers to assess students’ social skills with peers.
Teachers rate youth on items that include “accurately interprets what peers are trying to do” and “is aware of the effects of his/her behavior on others,” using a scale from 1 (very poor) to 5 (very good). Promising After-School Programs Adapted from:
Coie, J. D., & Dodge, K. A. (1988). Multiple sources of data on social behavior and social status in the school: A cross-age comparison. Child Development, 59, 815–829.
Sibling Relationship Questionnaire
This questionnaire includes 15 scales with 3 items each measuring youth’s perceived relationships with siblings (e.g., admiration, dominance, parent partiality, etc.).       
Youth respond to questions such as “How much do you and your sibling both share with each other?” on scales ranging from hardly at all to [sic] extremely much. Siblings of Children With Developmental Disabilities After School Support Program Information available in:
Furman, W., & Buhrmester, D. (1985). Children’s perception of the qualities of sibling relationships. Child Development, 56, 448–461.

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Table 2.5 Identity Perceptions and Self-Esteem

This table is a compilation of instruments used to assess identity perceptions and self-esteem. For examples of how these assessments were used, please consult the individual profiles in HFRP’s OST Program Research and Evaluation Database. Please also note that additional measures of identity perception and self-esteem may be available in Table 2.8: Multicomponent/Comprehensive Surveys.

print icon Download printable version of Table 2.5 (PDF, 311 KB)

Instrument Name &
Description
Sample Items/
Item Description
OST Evaluations Using the Instrument References &
Availability
Attractiveness Scale
This 8-item scale measures girls’ perceptions about attractiveness.
Sample items include: “I think girls need to be skinny to be attractive” and “The way I look is more important than the way I act.” The items are scored on a 4-point scale from strongly disagree to strongly agree. Go Grrrls Information available in:
LeCroy, C. W., & Daley, J. (2001). Empowering adolescent girls: Examining the present and building skills for the future with the Go Grrrls Program. New York: W. W. Norton.
Body Image Scale
This five-item self-report scale measures satisfaction with body image.
Sample items include “How happy are you with your overall figure?” and “How happy are you with how much you weigh?” Items are scored according to a 4-point scale from not at all to very much. Go Grrrls Unverified source:
Simmons, R. G., & Blythe, D. A. (1987). Moving into adolescence: The impact of pubertal change and school context. New York: Aldine De Gruyter.
Body Satisfaction
A measure adapted from youth’s reactions to eight body sizes that measures the degree of discrepancy between youth’s perceptions of how they look and how they would like to look.
Youth are presented with eight body figure drawings and asked to first choose the body type they believe resembles themselves. Youth then pick the figure that looks the way they would like to look. Girlfriends for KEEPS Unverified source:
Stunkard, A., Sorenson, T., & Schulsinger, F. (1983). Use of the Danish Adoption Register for the study of obesity and thinness. In Kety, S., Rowland, L., Sidman, R., & Matthysse, S. (Eds.), Genetics of neurological and psychiatric disorders. New York: Raven Press.
Children’s OMNI Scale of Perceived Exertion
This scale uses picture scales to enable exercisers to rate their physical exertion visually.   
Items are pictorial depictions of exertion on a 0 to 10 scale, with 10 being maximum possible exertion. Pilates After School Classes Available in:
Robertson, R. J., Goss, F. L., Boer, N. F., Peoples, J. A., Foreman, A. J., Dabayebeh, I.M., et al. (2000). Children’s OMNI scale of perceived exertion: Mixed gender and race validation. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 32, 452–458.
Draw a Person Test
This assessment measures acceptance of and/or conflict over racial identity.
Analysis of youth’s drawings of people by various factors, such as race of the person drawn (whether face of person drawn was colored in), occupation of person drawn, etc. Be A Star Information available in:
Schofield, J. W. (1975). Racial identity and intergroup attitudes of Black children in segregated and desegregated schools. www.eric.ed.gov
/ERICWebPortal
/detail?accno=ED118683
Feelings of Inadequacy Scale—Revised
This scale consists of 36 self-reported items measuring five factors: self-regard, social confidence, school abilities, physical appearance, and physical abilities.
Youth are presented with statements such as “I feel as smart as others” or “I feel self-conscious” and then report the frequency (practically never to very often) with which they feel in that way. School-to-Jobs Programme Available for free at:
http://chipts.cch.ucla.edu
/assessment/IB/List_Scales
/REVISED%20JANIS%20AND
%20FIELD%20SCALE.htm
Girls’ Self-Efficacy Scale
This nine-item scale measures girls’ perceived gender role efficacy.
Sample items include “I feel good about being a girl” and “I am a caring and confident girl.” The items are scored on a 4-point scale from strongly disagree to strongly agree. Go Grrrls Unverified source:
LeCroy, C. W., & Daley, J. (2001). Empowering adolescent girls: Examining the present and building skills for the future with the Go Grrrls Program. New York: W. W. Norton.
Harter Self-Perception Profile for Children/Adolescents
This scale measures youth’s perceived competence in academics and other areas (e.g., athletics) as well as their sense of general self-worth. It is intended for children over age 8, and has also been adapted specifically for adolescents.
Youth read two statements and choose the description that is more like them, and then they choose whether the description is really true or sort of true of them. For example, youth are asked to choose either
“Some kids often forget what they learn” or “Other kids can remember things easily.”

Across Ages

Big Brothers Big Sisters

Thunderbirds Teen Center

Woodrock Youth Development Program

Girlfriends for KEEPS

Unverified sources:
Harter, S. (1982). The perceived competence scale for children. Child Development, 53, 87–97; and Harter, S. (1985). The Self-Perception Profile for Children: Revision of the Perceived Competence Scale for Children. Denver, CO: University of Denver.

For adolescents, see also:
Harter, S. (1988). Manual for the Adolescent Self-Perception Profile. Denver, CO: Author.
Martinek-Zaichkowsky Self-Concept Scale for Children (MZSCS)
This nonverbal instrument measures the global self-concept of both English- and non-English-speaking children in Grades 1–8.
Youth respond to pictures that represent selected self-concept factors including popularity, intellectual and school status, physical appearance and attributes, happiness and satisfaction, anxiety, and behavior. Hispanic After School Program Unverified source:
Martinek, T. J., & Zaichkowsky, L. D. (1977). The Martinek-Zaichkowsky Self-Concept Scale for Children. Jacksonville, IL: Psychologists and Educators.
McKnight Risk Factor Survey
This survey assesses risk and protective factors in adolescent girls for the development of eating disorders.
Youth respond to various questions about weight gain, diet, eating habits, body appearance, parents’ diet, coping skills, support, and more. Girlfriends for KEEPS Available for free at:
http://bml.stanford.edu
/resources/documents
/MRFS_6-12_WEB.pdf
Piers-Harris Children’s Self-Concept Scale—2nd edition
This 60-item self-reported scale assesses general self-esteem in children aged 7–18, and has six subscales: behavior, intellectual and school status, physical appearance and attributes, anxiety, popularity, and happiness and satisfaction.          
Test items are simple descriptive statements, written at a second grade reading level. Youth indicate whether each item applies to them by selecting a yes or no response. (A Spanish Test Booklet is available for children who read Spanish only.) Project EMERGE Available for purchase at:
www.mhs.com/product.aspx?
gr=edu&prod=piersharris2&
id=overview
Revised Cultural Awareness Test (RCAT)
The scales, designed to measure ethnic identity or cross-cultural awareness, contain illustrations of dress, sports, food, and symbols from various cultures.
Youth rate their reactions toward each illustration by selecting one of five faces ranging from happy to sad. Be A Star Available in:
Zirkel, P. A., & Green, J. F. (1974). Cultural attitudes scales: Puerto Rican, Black-American, and Anglo-American. Bethlehem, PA: Lehigh University, School of Education. www.eric.ed.gov
/ERICWebPortal/detail?
accno=ED187763
Self-Description Questionnaire III
This 76-item self-report inventory for youth aged 8–12 measures self-concept in the following areas: mathematics, reading, general-school, physical abilities, physical appearance, peer relations, parent relations, total academic, total nonacademic, total self, and general self. There are also similar inventories designed for older youth.
Youth are asked to read declarative sentences (e.g., “I’m good at mathematics,” and “I make friends easily”) and to select one of eight responses ranging from definitely false to definitely true. Gevirtz Homework Project Available for free at:
www.self.ox.ac.uk
/Instruments.htm
Self-Esteem Questionnaire   
This self-report questionnaire includes 42 items forming six subscales measuring self-esteem in peer relations, family, school, sports/athletics, body image, and global self-worth.
Adolescents rate statements such as: “I am as good a student as I would like to be,” and “I am happy with myself as a person,” using a 4-point scale to indicate how much they agree or disagree. Siblings of Children With Developmental Disabilities After School Support Program Available in:
DuBois, D. L., Felner, R. D., Brand, S., Phillips, R. S. C., & Lease, A. L. (1996). Early adolescent self-esteem: A developmental-ecological framework and assessment strategy. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 6, 543–579.
Self-Image Questionnaire for Young Adolescents (SIQYA)
This set of self-report questions aimed at 11- to 13-year-olds measures self-image in areas such as difficulty in dealing with new situations and confidence in one’s learning abilities.
Statements include “when I decide to do something, I do it,” “I frequently feel sad,” and “I can count on my parents most of the time.” Youth report using a 6-point scale ranging from 1 (does not describe me at all) to 6 (describes me very well). Big Brothers Big Sisters Information available in:
Petersen, A., Schulenberg, J., Abramowitz, R., Offer, D., & Jarcho, H. (1984). A Self-Image Questionnaire for Young Adolescents (SIQYA): Reliability and validity studies. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 13, 93–111.
Self-Liking and Self-Competence Scale—Revised
This 18-item scale measures perceived personal efficacies and self-esteem.
Sample items include “I perform very well at many things” and “I do not have enough respect for myself.” The items are scored on a 5-point scale from strongly disagree to strongly agree. Go Grrrls Available for free at:
www.psych.utoronto.ca
/users/tafarodi/
Short Acculturation Scale for Hispanics—Youth Version (SASH-Y)
This 12-item measure assesses the predominant language used in different contexts of a child’s day (reading, speaking, thinking, and television/radio) and the predominant ethnicity of a child’s social group (close friends and visitors).
Youth rate the language used in various contexts on a 5-point scale with 1 indicating only Spanish, 3 indicating both Spanish and English equally, and 5 indicating only English. Generación Diez Available for free at:
http://sites.google.com
/site/drjeffmiller
/Home/acculturation-scale

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Table 2.6 Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drug (ATOD) Prevention

This table is a compilation of instruments used to assess alcohol, tobacco, and other drug (ATOD) prevention. For examples of how these assessments were used, please consult the individual profiles in HFRP’s OST Program Research and Evaluation Database. Please also note that additional measures of ATOD prevention may be available in Table 2.8: Multicomponent/Comprehensive Surveys.

print icon Download printable version of Table 2.6 (PDF, 274 KB)

Instrument Name &
Description
Sample Items/
Item Description
OST Evaluations Using the Instrument References &
Availability
Attitudes Toward Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drug (ATOD) Use
This assessment measures students’ attitudes toward alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs.
Youth indicate what they would say if a friend offered them things like cigarettes, beer, wine, hard liquor, marijuana, cocaine, crack, depressants, or stimulants. They answer on a 5-point scale ranging from definitely no, probably no, undecided, probably yes, to definitely yes. Woodrock Youth Development Project Information available in:
Caplan, M., Weissberg, R. P., Grober, J. S., Sivo, P. J., Grady, K., & Jacoby, C. (1992). Social competence promotion with inner-city and suburban young adolescents: Effects on social adjustment and alcohol use. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 60(1), 56–63.
Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP) National Youth Survey
This survey measures alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use and associated risk and resiliency factors for youth aged 9–18. It is adapted from a number of instruments measuring outcomes typical of substance use prevention programs.
Youth answer questions such as “On how many days in the last month (30 days) did you smoke a cigarette?” and “Pretend your best friend offered you some marijuana and you did not want it. How hard would it be to say ‘no’?”

Project Venture

Say Yes First

Available for free at:
www.emt.org/CSAP
_NationalYouthSurvey.htm
Communities That Care Survey
This survey for youth in Grades 6–12 measures the incidence and prevalence of substance use, delinquency, and related problem behaviors and the risk and protective factors that predict those problems in communities.
Questions are organized into the following categories: general demographics; alcohol, tobacco, and other drug incidence and prevalence; and specific risk and protective factors in the domains of community, family, school, and peer–individual. Maryland After School Community Grant Program Available for free at:
http://store.samhsa.gov
/product/CTC020
Frequency of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drug (ATOD) Use
This assessment measures the frequency of youth’s ATOD usage.
Youth report the frequency of ATOD use in specified time frames, such as in the last month and over their lifetimes. Woodrock Youth Development Project Adapted from:
Center for Substance Abuse Prevention. (1993). Proposed instruments for CSAP HRY domain matrix. Rockville, MD: Author.
Self-Reported Behavior Index
A self-report measure completed by youth about behavior and substance use since the start of the school year or term.   
Youth rate their conduct in response to items such as “gotten into a fight at school,” and “doing something your parents told you not to do,” and items about use of tobacco, alcohol, on a 5-point scale from 0 (never) to 4 (almost every day). Promising After-School Programs Information available in:
Brown, B. B., Clasen, D. R., & Eicher, S. A. (1986). Perceptions of peer pressure, peer conformity, dispositions, and self-reported behavior among adolescents. Developmental Psychology, 22, 521–530.

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Table 2.7 Program Quality/Program Environment

This table is a compilation of instruments used to assess program quality/program environment. For examples of how these assessments were used, please consult the individual profiles in HFRP’s OST Program Research and Evaluation Database. Please also note that additional measures of program quality/program environment may be available in Table 2.8: Multicomponent/Comprehensive Surveys.

print icon Download printable version of Table 2.7 (PDF, 299 KB)

Instrument Name &
Description
Sample Items/
Item Description
OST Evaluations Using the Instrument References &
Availability
After-School Activity Observation Instrument (AOI)
This tool is used during site visits to collect observational data measuring the quality of interactions, opportunities, and resources.        
The observer records indicator data during 5-minute observations. Indicators include youth interactions, staff–youth interactions, youth engagement, opportunities for skill-building and mastery, activity organization, and setting and resources. Promising After-School Programs Available for free at:
http://childcare.wceruw.org
/pdf/pp/aoi_observation
_spring2003.pdf
After-School Environment Scale
This 36-item scale measures three main components of the afterschool program environment, as reported by youth: enthusiasm for and perceptions of emotional support, beliefs regarding opportunities for autonomy and privacy, and opportunities for peer affiliations.
Youth report the frequency (on a scale ranging from never to always) with which they experience things in their afterschool program like “I get to know other kids well here” and “I help plan what we do here.” The After-School Corporation (TASC) Available for free at:
http://childcare.wceruw.org
/pdf/pp/ases_spring2004.pdf
Afterschool Program Practice Tool—Research Version (APT-R)
This tool measures the quality of afterschool program by examining three areas: overall program observation, activity observation, and homework.
Items include “There is an established arrival routine that seems familiar to staff and youth” and “Staff use positive reinforcement to encourage appropriate behavior.” Observer responds to a number of items on a 4-point scale ranging from not true to very true. Massachusetts After-School Research Study Information available in:
Intercultural Center for Research in Education and the National Institute on Out-of-School Time. (2005). Pathways to success for youth: What counts in after-school: Massachusetts After-School Research Study (MARS) report. Boston: United Way of Massachusetts Bay.
After-School Quality (ASQ)
This team process for program improvement includes a section on gathering information on staff–child interactions and program quality through questionnaires and observations.         
Not available. North Carolina Quality Enhancement Initiative Available for purchase at:
www.niost.org/asq
Caregiver Interaction Scale (CIS)
This 26-item observation scale is used to rate a single staff member on staff–child interaction quality.
Sample items include “speaks warmly to the children” and “doesn’t supervise the children very closely.” Items are scored using a scale from 1 (never true) to 4 (often observed). North Carolina Quality Enhancement Initiative Information available in:
Arnett, J. (1989). Caregivers in day-care centers: Does training matter? Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 10, 541–552.
National AfterSchool Association (NSACA) Standards for Quality School-Age Care
This assessment contains program quality standards for human relationships, indoor environment, outdoor environment, activities, safety, health, nutrition, and administration.
Program observers assess the degree to which the program meets various quality standards, such as “Staff make children feel welcome and comfortable,” “There are regular opportunities for creative arts and dramatic play,” and “Staff have access to adequate and convenient storage.” Responses range on a scale from 0 (no evidence or not met) to 3 (fully met). Virtual Y Available for purchase at:
www.naaweb.org
/default.asp?contentID=582
Out-of-School Time Observation Instrument—2nd edition
This observation tool rates project activities on five key domains related to youth development: youth-directed relationship building, youth participation, staff-directed relationship building, staff strategies for skill building and mastery, and activity content and structure.
Sample items include “Youth are friendly to each other,” “Youth are on-task,” “Staff use positive behavior management techniques,” “Staff communicate goals, purposes, and expectations,” and “The activity is well organized.” Each indicator is rated on a scale from 1 (not evident) to 7 (highly evident and consistent). Shared Features of High-Performing After-School Programs Available for free at:
www.sedl.org/pubs/catalog
/items/fam107.html
Program Assessment Rating Tool (PART)
This tool measures four categories of program performance: program purpose and design, strategic planning, program management, and program results/ accountability.   
Sample questions include “Does the program address a specific and existing problem, interest or need?” and “Has the program demonstrated adequate progress in achieving its long-term performance goals?” Respondents assess whether the program meets various criteria using either a yes/no format or a 4-point scale (yes, large extent, small extent, no). Project Exploration Information available at:
www.whitehouse.gov
/omb/performance_past
Promising Practices Rating System
This program observation tool is designed to quantify 7 program processes related to quality, including supportive relations with adults, supportive relations with peers, youth engagement, appropriate program structure, cognitive growth opportunities, mastery orientation, and autonomy opportunities.
Sample items include “Staff listen attentively and look at children when they are speaking,” “Children appear relaxed and involved with each other,” and “Students contribute to discussions.” Items are rated on a 4-point scale from 1 (highly uncharacteristic) to 4 (highly characteristic). Promising After-School Programs

Yale Study of Children’s After-School Time
Available for free at:
http://childcare.wceruw.org
/form3.html
Quality Assurance System (QAS)
This quality assessment tool examines the following program elements: program space; health and safety; program materials and supplies; program structure; staff development; staff responsibilities, involvement and interaction; parent responsibilities, involvement and interaction; district staff and community partnership, involvement, and interaction; and program content.
Ratings of program elements are based on a 4-point scale from 1 (unsatisfactory) to 4 (outstanding). Walnut Street Elementary After School Program Available for purchase at:
http://qas.foundationsinc.org
/start.asp?st=1
Quality of School Age Child Care Checklist
This 38-item tool measures perceptions of afterschool programs. It is comprised of five subscales: facilities and furnishings, guidance and supervision, programming and activities, parent, school and community relationships, and staffing and staff characteristics.
Sample statements include “Staff consistently encourage/reward appropriate behavior; use positive behavior management techniques” and “Opportunities, resources and support are provided to assist children with homework.” Statements are rated on a 7-point scale ranging from 1 (inadequate) to 7 (excellent). Rural After-School Programs Available for free at:
http://health.oregonstate.edu
/sites/default/files/sbhs/pdf
/BR2Ch9.pdf
School-Age Care Environment Rating Scale (SACERS)
This observation scale measures a program’s developmental appropriateness, focusing on 43 items from six subscales: (a) space and furnishings, (b) health and safety, (c) activities, (d) interactions, (e) program structure, and (f) staff development. There is also a seventh subscale of six items for programs that include children with special needs.
Example items include “space for gross motor activities” and “staff–child interactions.” Each item is rated on a 7-point scale from 1 (inadequate) to 7 (excellent). An average score on the 43 items is then calculated. North Carolina Quality Enhancement Initiative

Walnut Street Elementary After School Program
Available for purchase at:
http://store.tcpress.com
/0807735078.shtml
School Environment Scale
This tool measures youth’s perceptions of their school including overall satisfaction, perception of ease in making friends at school, school safety, and teachers’ interest and abilities.
Sample items include “It is easy to make friends at your school” and “Most of the teachers are willing to help if you have a problem.” Rural After-School Programs Unverified source:
National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. (1988). School environment scale. Washington, DC: Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor.
Sense of School as a Community Scale
Separate scales for elementary and middle school youth measure perceptions of experiencing a supportive community in a program, such as whether people care about each other in the program and whether people treat each other with respect in the program.
Youth report their agreement with statements such as “Students in my class don’t really care about each other” and “Teachers and students treat each other with respect in this school.” The After-School Corporation (TASC) Available for free at:
www.devstu.org/page
/research-child-development-
project

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Table 2.8 Multicomponent Scales/Comprehensive Surveys

This table is a compilation of instruments used to assess multicomponent scales/comprehensive surveys. For examples of how these assessments were used, please consult the individual profiles in HFRP’s OST Program Research and Evaluation Database.

print icon Download printable version of Table 2.8 (PDF, 303 KB)

Instrument Name &
Description
Sample Items/
Item Description
OST Evaluations Using the Instrument References &
Availability
Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale—2nd edition
This scale includes approximately 50 items that measure the personal strengths and competencies of youth aged 5–18 from three perspectives: child, parent, and teacher/other professional. It assesses several aspects of these strengths and competencies: interpersonal strength, involvement with family, intrapersonal strength, school functioning, affective strength, and career strength.
Adults rate items in a number of areas such as “accepts responsibility for own actions,” “talks about the positive aspects of life,” and “shows concern for the feelings of others” on a 4-point scale from 0 (not at all like the child) to 3 (very much like the child).  Gevirtz Homework Project Available for purchase at:
www.proedinc.com/customer
/ProductView.aspx?ID=3430&
sSearchWord=
Individual Protective Factors Index
This 71-item self-administered questionnaire measures the resiliency of adolescents (aged 10–16). It assesses 10 attitudinal orientations in three major domains: social bonding, personal competence, and social competence. 
Youth respond to statements such as “I get mad easily,” “Drinking alcohol is bad for your health,” and “Following the rules is stupid” using a 4-point scale (YES!, yes, no, NO!).  Across Ages

Be a Star

Gevirtz Homework Project
Available for free at:
www.emt.org/ipfi.html
Intake Questionnaire for Entering 9th Grades
This assessment measures youth’s social supports, interest in specific careers, attitude toward scientists and scientific careers, self-assessment of intelligence compared to peers, and educational experience and aspirations. Youth also report information about the educational attainment and careers of members of their households.  

Examples of attitude toward scientific careers include “It is more difficult for women to get ahead in math and science careers than for men” and “Careers in math and science offer high salaries.” These items are rated on a 5-point scale ranging from strongly disagree to strongly agree.

Examples of social supports items include asking youth to state the number of “female friends who are interested in mathematics, science, or computers” on a 5-point scale ranging from none to four or more.

Girls Creating Games Available for free at:
http://oerl.sri.com/instruments
/up/studsurv/instr125.html
Life Skills Development Evaluation
This tool measures youth’s life skills in eight categories: decision making, wise use of resources, communication, accepting differences, leadership, marketable skills, healthy lifestyle choices, and self-responsibility.
Sample items include “I listen carefully to what others say” and “I list my options before making a decision.” Items are rated on a 4-point scale: 1 (no), 2 (sometimes), 3 (usually), 4 (yes). Rural After-School Programs Available for free at:
http://ext.wsu.edu
/LifeskillsNew/
Public/Private Ventures San Francisco Beacons Youth Survey
This survey is comprised primarily of various positive youth development indicators, such as self-efficacy, positive reactions to challenges, meaningful roles and responsibilities, etc.         
   
Sample items include: “I don’t try very hard in school,” “If I can’t do a job the first time, I keep trying until I can,” and “I handle unexpected problems very well,” rated on a 4-point scale from strongly agree to strongly disagree. Youth are also asked to report specific numbers in response to questions about their roles/responsibilities and relationships with adults and peers. Promising After-School Programs

San Francisco Beacons Initiative
Available for free in:
Walker, K. E., & Arbreton, A. J. A. (2001). Working together to build Beacon Centers in San Francisco: Evaluation findings from 1998–2000. Philadelphia: Public/Private Ventures. www.ppv.org/ppv/publications
/assets/118_publication.pdf
Risk Protective Factors Scale
This youth self-report scale measures various factors meant to help protect youth against a variety of risks. These protective factors include neighborhood resources, interested and caring adults, positive attitudes toward the future, ability to work with others, and self-perceived competence.
Youth report their level of agreement with statements such as “Adults are willing to help me with my problems,” “I am able to get along with friends,” and “I am creative.” Thunderbirds Teen Center

Totally Cool, Totally Art
Unverified sources:
Witt, P. A., Baker, D. A., & Scott, D. (1996). The Protective Factors Scale. College Station: Texas A&M University; and Witt, P. A., & Crompton, J. L. (1997). The protective factors framework: A key to programming for benefits and evaluating for results. Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, 15(3), 1–18.
Social Skills Improvement System Rating Scales
These questionnaires for youth aged 3–18, as well as their parents and teachers, each assess one of the following scales: social skills, problem behaviors, and academic competence.
Respondents report the frequency with which youth demonstrate qualities such as “feels sorry for others,” “disagrees without fighting,” and “is aggressive toward people or objects." BELL Accelerated Learning Summer Program

Maryland After School Community Grant Program
Available for purchase at:
http://psychcorp.pearson
assessments.com/HAIWEB
/Cultures/en-us/Product
detail.htm?Pid=PAa3400
Survey of Afterschool Youth Outcomes (SAYO)
This survey for afterschool staff and teachers measures outcomes in eight areas that research suggests are linked to long-term positive development and academic/life success: academic performance, homework completion and effort, classroom behavior, initiative, engagement in learning, analysis and problem solving skills, communication skills, and relations with adults and peers.
Sample teacher items include, “volunteers to ask a question or answer a question in class” and “sets goals for self.” Sample staff items include “initiates interactions with adults” and “shows consideration for peers.”  Teachers and staff report the frequency of items using a 5-point scale ranging from 1 (never) to 5 (always). Massachusetts After-School Research Study Available for purchase at:
www.niost.org/sayo
The After-School Corporation (TASC) Elementary, Middle, and High School Student Surveys
These three surveys—one each for elementary, middle, and high school students—ask youth about their experiences and needs with regard to the afterschool program.   
Each survey contains questions about youth’s background characteristics, time use, academic self-concept and attitudes, perceptions and opinions about the program, feelings about peers in the program, and perceptions of positive effects of program participation. The middle and high school surveys also measure leadership opportunities and social supports in the program, as well as prosocial and antisocial behavior. In addition, the high school survey measures youth’s delinquency-related and sexual activity-related behavior, as well as their college and post-secondary future plans. The After-School Corporation (TASC) Available for free at:
www.policystudies.com
/studies/?id=36
The After-School Corporation (TASC) Parent Survey
This survey is administered to parents of afterschool program participants to learn more about their experiences and
needs in relation to the program.
Questions address parents’ background characteristics, youth’s time use prior to participating in the program, parents’ perceptions of and satisfaction with the program, and their perceptions of youth and family outcomes associated with program participation. The After-School Corporation (TASC) Available for free at:
www.policystudies.com
/studies/?id=36
The After-School Corporation (TASC) Principal Survey
This survey is administered to principals to learn about the quality and availability of afterschool services, the relationship between the afterschool program and the school, and the costs and benefits to the school of hosting the program.             
Questions address principals’ perceptions of the program, its strengths and weaknesses, its relationship with the school and school-day teachers, and its effectiveness in benefiting youth. The After-School Corporation (TASC) Available for free at:
www.policystudies.com
/studies/?id=36
The After-School Corporation (TASC) Site Coordinator Survey
This survey is administered to site coordinators and is designed to capture basic information about the afterschool program and the site coordinator’s experience with the program.
Questions address program goals, enrollment, activities/schedule, youth/staff interactions, staffing, supervision, and support; relationship with school; parent/ community outreach/involvement; and site coordinator background/experience. The After-School Corporation (TASC) Available for free at:
www.policystudies.com
/studies/?id=36
The After-School Corporation (TASC) Staff Survey
This survey is administered to program staff to gather information about the program's goals, activities, and services; staffing patterns; partnership with participating schools; and professional development opportunities.
Questions address job characteristics (including perceptions of youth and programming); job satisfaction, supervision, and support; training/technical assistance opportunities; relationship with school; and background/ experience. The After-School Corporation (TASC) Available for free at:
www.policystudies.com
/studies/?id=36
What About You?
This survey is used for needs assessment and to evaluate programs to prevent alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use and other forms of adolescent problem behavior, and to increase school safety.
Questions address youth’s attachment to school, rebellious and delinquent behavior, drug use, attitudes about drug use, peer relationships, parental supervision, commitment to education, belief in rules, social skills, attachment to prosocial adults, unsupervised afterschool time, and involvement in constructive activities. Maryland After School Community Grant Program Available for purchase at:
www.gottfredson.com
/way.htm

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© 2014 Presidents and Fellows of Harvard College
Published by Harvard Family Research Project